microcephaly


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.
Related to microcephaly: macrocephaly

microcephaly

 [mi″kro-sef´ah-le]
small size of the head in relation to the rest of the body. adj., adj microcephal´ic.

mi·cro·ceph·a·ly

(mī'krō-sef'ă-lē),
Abnormal smallness of the head; applied to a cranium with a capacity less than 1350 mL. Usually associated with mental retardation.
[micro- + G. kephalē, head]

microcephaly

/mi·cro·ceph·a·ly/ abnormal smallness of the head.microcephal´ic

microcephaly

(mī′krō-sĕf′ə-lē)
n. pl. microcepha·lies
Abnormal smallness of the head.

mi′cro·ce·phal′ic (-sə-făl′ĭk) adj. & n.
mi′cro·ceph′a·lous (-sĕf′ə-ləs) adj.

microcephaly

[mī′krōsef′əlē]
Etymology: Gk, mikros + kephale, head
a congenital anomaly characterized by abnormal smallness of the head in relation to the rest of the body and by underdevelopment of the brain, resulting in some degree of mental retardation. The head is more than two standard deviations below the average circumference size for age, sex, race, and period of gestation. It has a narrow, receding forehead; a flattened occiput; and a pointed vertex. The facial features are generally normal. The condition may be caused by an autosomal-recessive disorder, a chromosomal abnormality, a toxic stimulus such as irradiation or chemical agents, maternal infection during prenatal development, or any trauma, especially during the third trimester of pregnancy or early infancy. There is no treatment, and nursing care is primarily supportive and educational, helping parents learn to care for a brain-damaged child. Also called microcephalia, microcephalism. Compare macrocephaly. microcephalic, microcephalous, adj., microcephalic, microcephalus, n.

microcephaly

An abnormally small head, which is usually associated with neurodevelopmental delay and mental retardation. A standard definition is any brain or head which is ≥ 3 standard deviations below the mean for a person’s age, sex, height, weight and race.

Conditions associated with microcephaly
Cockayne, Miller-Dieker, Smith-Lemli-Opitz, Rothmund-Thomson, and Wolf-Hirschhorn syndromes; chromosomal defects (cat-cry or 5p- and trisomy 13 syndromes), in utero infection (CMV), rubella, toxoplasmosis, toxic exposure (foetal alcohol and foetal hydantoin syndromes), radiation (the only confirmed congenital defect specifically linked to atomic bomb blasts (i.e., in Hiroshima and Nagasaki)), or trauma.

Genes linked to microcephaly
ASPM, CDK5RAP2, CENPJ, MCPH1, MCPH2, MCPH4.

microcephaly

Neonatology An abnormally small head, often associated with developmental delay and mental retardation; any brain or head that is ≥ 3 standard deviations below the mean for a person's age, sex, height, weight, race. Cf Macrocephaly.

mi·cro·ceph·a·ly

, microcephalia (mī'krō-sef'ă-lē, -sĕ-fālē-ă)
Abnormal smallness of the head; applied to a cranium with a capacity less than 1350 mL. Usually associated with mental retardation.
Synonym(s): nanocephaly.
[micro- + G. kephalē, head]

microcephaly

Abnormal smallness of the skull. Microcephaly often reflects poor brain development and is usually associated with MENTAL RETARDATION.

Microcephaly

An abnormally small head.

Paine,

R.S.,
Paine retinaculatome
Paine syndrome - males only; onset at birth; physical and mental retardation; seizures. Synonym(s): microcephaly
Paine-Efron syndrome - pain in the back and thigh followed by slowly progressive ataxia. Synonym(s): ataxia-telangiectasia variant

microcephaly (mīˈ·krō·seˑ·f·lē),

n a congenital disorder characterized by an abnormally small head relative to the rest of the body and an underdeveloped brain; may result in mental retardation; caused by a chromosomal anomaly or exposure to trauma or toxic stimulus during prenatal development.

mi·cro·ceph·a·ly

, microcephalia (mī'krō-sef'ă-lē, -sĕ-fālē-ă)
Abnormal smallness of the head; often associated with mental retardation.
[micro- + G. kephalē, head]

microcephaly

small size of the head in relation to the rest of the body.
References in periodicals archive ?
Chilren with ring chromosome 6 who have been reported until the present time in the literature have been observed to display a wide clinical spectrum ranging from normal intelligence level to neurologic and dysmorphic findings including epilepsy, hydrocephaly, microcephaly and mental retardation (5,6).
Along with a number of fetal morphological defects found during the present study histopathological anomalies attributable to developmental exposure of clomiphene citrate included meningomyelocele, hydrocephaly, microcephaly, underdeveloped cerebellum, dilated lateral ventricles, defective eye lens, corneal and retinal defects.
It is likely that her microcephaly was the result of an undetected infection that occurred during the third trimester, resulting in an arrest of cortical development.
ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] The measurement of head circumference is used to detect congenital microcephaly or excess growth due to hydrocephaly.
Paul's mum, Lynne, says her son, who is autistic and affected by microcephaly - which means his head is smaller than average, was transformed by the experience.
Our patient was a 2-year-old boy with a history of multiple congenital anomalies, including microcephaly, micrognathia, sensorineural hearing loss, developmental delay, a single functioning kidney, cryptorchidism, and bilateral preauricular tags, pits, and cupped ear deformity.
Different mutations of the Microcephalin and ASPM genes were known to cause primary microcephaly, a condition marked by severely reduced brain size (typically 400 cubic centimeters in affected adults compared to 1200 to 1600 cubic centimeters in normal adults).
Dawn's gut feelings were right - Jake was diagnosed with microcephaly, a neuro develop mental disorder which basically means he has a small head, and therefore his brain is smaller than that of a "normal" boy his age.
19) Short stature, slender hands and digits, microcephaly, intellectual disability, minor ear anomalies and inguinal hernia are also described as occurring in VCFS.
At first, doctors put Stephanie's smallness down to a condition called microcephaly, also known as small head syndrome.
After widespread illegal use of mis-oprostol for abortion in Brazil, researchers found a significant number of women using the drug gave birth to children with full or partial facial paralysis, limb formations such as missing or fused fingers and toes, as well as hydrocephaly ("water on the brain")or microcephaly (abnormally small heads).
Among other symptoms and deformities, people with microcephaly have smaller than average heads and bodies.

Full browser ?