Keywords: MDR Salmonella Typhi, Methylglyoxal
Honeys with a UMF[R] rating are regulated through the Unique Manuka Factor Honey Association, which requires honey go through rigorous independent testing by two Ministry of Primary Industries accredited laboratories to assure the authenticity of UMF[R] ratings as well as the levels DHA, Leptosperin - a compound found only in the Manuka plant - and Methylglyoxal
Manuka Pharma, for the development, manufacture and supply of a hemp-based, high methylglyoxal
(MGS) Manuka Honey product line.
Hyperglycaemia-induced impairment of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in rat mesenteric arteries is mediated by intracellular methylglyoxal
levels in a pathway dependent on oxidative stress.
Additionally, some lipid oxidation products, such as glyoxal, methylglyoxal
, and other carbonyl compounds, might react with amines, amino acids, and proteins, and consequently attribute the browning reaction which observed in many fatty foods during processing and storage .
Some of the transgenic plants have been produced by genetic engineering of methylglyoxal
(cytotoxic compound) pathway.
Furthermore, a relatively small hydrazide molecule, having small distance between carbonyl and amino groups, may remain unable to accommodate simultaneously both methylglyoxal
and a large protein molecule to form a bis-Schiff base.
5 pg/plate) for TA98 + S9, TA100 + S9, YG1041 + S9, and TA104 + S9; and methylglyoxal
(50 [micro]g/plate) for strain TA104 - S9.
Molecular mechanism of heavy metal toxicity and tolerance in plants: central role of glutathione in detoxification of reactive oxygen species and methylglyoxal
and in heavy metal chelation.
Transgenic potato overproducing L-ascorbic acid resisted an increase in methylglyoxal
under salinity stress via maintaining higher reduced glutathione level and glyoxalase enzyme activity.
Others components responsible for antibacterial activity of honey include phenolics, carbohydrates, Maillard products, proteins, antibiotic-like peptides methylglyoxal
, and other non-determined substances .
Other factors that contribute to antimicrobial activity of honey include the high sugar concentration, hydrogen peroxide, methylglyoxal
, and the antimicrobial peptide bee defensin-1 (15).