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the speed or frequency with which an event or circumstance occurs per unit of time, population, or other standard of comparison.
adjusted rate a fictitious summary rate statistically adjusted to remove the effect of a variable, such as age or sex, to permit unbiased comparison between groups having different compositions with respect to these variables. See also crude rate and specific rate.
attack rate in the analysis of acute outbreaks of disease, the proportion of persons who are exposed to the disease during the outbreak who do become ill.
basal metabolic rate an expression of the rate at which oxygen is utilized in a fasting subject at complete rest as a percentage of a value established as normal for such a subject. Abbreviated BMR.
birth rate the number of live births in a geographic area in a defined period, usually one year, relative to some specified population. For the crude birth rate, it is the average total population or the midyear population in the area during the period. Specific birth rates for subsets of the population may also be calculated, for example, an age-specific birth rate is limited to the population of females of a defined age range.
case fatality rate the number of deaths due to a specific disease as compared to the total number of cases of the disease.
crude rate one giving the total number of events occurring in an entire population over a period of time, without reference to any of the individuals or subgroups within the population. See also adjusted rate and specific rate.
death rate the number of deaths in a certain period of time divided by the total of a given population. The crude death rate is the ratio of the number of deaths in a geographic area in one year divided by the average population in the area during the year. The age-specific death rate is the ratio of the number of deaths occurring in a specified age group to the average population of that group. The cause-specific death rate is the ratio of the number of deaths due to a specified cause to the average total population. Called also mortality rate.
DEF rate an expression of dental caries experienced in primary teeth, calculated by adding number of those requiring filling (D), decayed teeth requiring extraction (E), and those that have already been successfully filled (F); missing primary teeth are not included in the calculation.
DMF rate an expression of the condition of the permanent teeth based on the number of teeth decayed, missing (or indicated for removal), and filled or bearing restorations. It is calculated by adding the number of carious permanent teeth requiring filling (D), carious ones requiring extraction (Mr), ones previously extracted because of caries (Mp), and permanent teeth (F).
dose rate the amount of any therapeutic agent administered per unit of time.
erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) see erythrocyte sedimentation rate.
fatality rate the death rate in a specific group of persons simultaneously affected by some event or circumstances, such as a natural disaster.
fertility rate a measure of fertility in a defined population over a specified period of time, usually one year; particularly the general fertility rate, but also including more specific rates such as those for females of a given parity or a particular age range or that describing the completed rate for females who have finished childbearing.
fetal death rate the ratio of the number of fetal deaths in one year to the total number of both live births and fetal deaths in that year.
five-year survival rate an expression of the number of survivors with no trace of a given disease five years after each has been diagnosed or treated for the disease.
flow rate flow (def. 2).
forced expiratory flow rate forced expiratory flow.
general fertility rate the most widely used measure of fertility; the number of live births in a geographic area in a year per 1000 women of childbearing age, which is usually defined as age 15 to 44 years.
glomerular filtration rate an expression of the quantity of glomerular filtrate formed each minute in the nephrons of both kidneys, calculated by measuring the clearance of specific substances, e.g., inulin or creatinine.
growth rate an expression of the increase in size of an organic object per unit of time.
heart rate the number of contractions of the cardiac ventricles per unit of time (usually per minute).
incidence rate the risk of developing a particular disease during a given period of time; the numerator of the rate is the number of new cases during the specified time period and the denominator is the population at risk during the period. Compare prevalence r.
infant mortality rate the ratio of the number of deaths in one year of children less than one year of age to the number of live births in that year.
intrinsic rate in cardiac pacing terminology, the heart rate unaided by an artificial pacemaker, expressed in beats per minute (bpm). See also cycle length.
maternal mortality rate a rate in which the numerator is the number of maternal deaths ascribed to puerperal causes in one year; the number of live births in that year is often used as the denominator, although to make a true rate the denominator should be the number of pregnancies (live births plus fetal deaths). Called also puerperal mortality rate.
maximal expiratory flow rate (MEFR) maximal expiratory flow.
maximal midexpiratory flow rate (MMFR) maximal midexpiratory flow.
mendelian rate an expression of the numerical relations of the occurrence of distinctly contrasted mendelian characteristics in succeeding generations of hybrid offspring.
metabolic rate an expression of the amount of oxygen consumed by the body cells.
mortality rate death rate.
neonatal mortality rate the ratio of the number of deaths in one year of children less than 28 days of age to the number of live births in that year.
paced rate in cardiac pacing terminology, the rate of pulses of an artificial pacemaker, expressed as pulses per minute (ppm). See also cycle length.
perinatal mortality rate the ratio of the number of the sum of fetal deaths after 28 or more weeks of gestation (stillbirths) and deaths of infants less than 7 days of age in one time period and population to the sum of the number of live births and fetal deaths after 28 or more weeks of gestation (stillbirths) in that same time period and population.
postneonatal mortality rate the ratio of the number of deaths in a given year of children between the 28th day of life and the first birthday relative to the difference between the number of the live births and neonatal deaths in that year; the denominator is sometimes simplified, less correctly, to the number of live births. The ratio is sometimes approximated as the difference between the infant mortality rate and the neonatal mortality rate.
prevalence rate the number of people in a population who have a disease at a given time; the numerator is the number of existing cases of disease at a specified time and the denominator is the total population. Time may be a point or a defined interval, and is traditionally the former if unspecified. Compare incidence r.
puerperal mortality rate maternal mortality r.
pulse rate the rate of the pulse, measured as number of pulsations in an artery per unit of time; normally between 60 and 80 per minute in an adult.
respiration rate the number of inhalations and exhalations per unit of time, usually measured by observation of chest movements and averaging 16 to 20 per minute in an adult.
sedimentation rate the rate at which a sediment is deposited in a given volume of solution, especially when subjected to the action of a centrifuge; see also erythrocyte sedimentation rate.
slew rate in cardiac pacing, the rate, expressed in units of mV/msec, at which an R wave reaches peak amplitude; it represents the maximum rate of change of amplifier output voltage.
specific rate a rate that applies to a specific demographic subgroup, e.g., individuals of a specific age, sex, or race, giving the total number of events in relation only to that subgroup. See also adjusted rate and crude rate.
stillbirth rate fetal death rate.
the amount of energy liberated or expended in a given unit of time. Energy is stored in the body in energy-rich phosphate compounds (adenosine triphosphate, adenosine monophosphate, and adenosine diphosphate) and in proteins, fats, and complex carbohydrates. See also basal metabolic rate.
metabolic ratethe rate at which an organism carries out METABOLISM, and which is closely linked to temperature. The relationship between metabolic rate and temperature can be expressed in terms of a value called Q10. See also BASAL METABOLIC RATE.
metabolic ratethe rate of energy expenditure during any given state of rest or specified activity. Commonly assessed in terms of respiratory gas exchange (indirect calorimetry) by obtaining values for oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide output, and relating these to the equivalent release of energy in kJ or kcal per minute. basal metabolic rate (BMR) the rate of energy expenditure which is required at complete rest for all cellular function, to maintain the systems of the body and to regulate body temperature. It is measured before the person rises in the morning after fasting for at least 12 hours, requiring an overnight stay under controlled conditions in the laboratory. BMR is influenced by age, sex, body size and fat-free mass. In most sedentary healthy adults it accounts for approximately 60-80% of total daily energy expenditure, amounting to ∼4000-7000 kJ per 24 hours for individuals with body mass within the normal range. In elite endurance athletes during days of competition or training, BMR may represent only 38-47% of total daily energy expenditure. resting metabolic rate (RMR) is more commonly measured, since it allows the person to sleep at home, to travel to the laboratory in the morning and to rest there before RMR is assessed. Values for BMR and RMR usually differ by less than 10% and sometimes are used interchangeably. RMR is typically close to 4.2 kJ per kg of body mass per hour or 3.5 mL O2 utilized per kg of body mass per minute. See also Douglas bag method, oxygen consumption.
pertaining to internal metabolism.
acidemia due to metabolic error.
metabolic bone disease
includes a range of bone diseases associated with metabolic diseases, e.g. secondary hyperparathyroidism, rickets and osteoporosis.
generally an inherited defect that is present at birth, but which is not necessarily evident clinically for several months afterwards. The defect creates a metabolic error, which leads to the accumulation of end products which cause clinical signs, e.g. mannosidosis, porphyria or an exaggerated response from an end-organ, e.g. inherited goiter. See also inborn error of metabolism.
diseases in which normal metabolic processes are disturbed and a resulting absence or shortfall of a normal metabolite causes disease, e.g. hypocalcemia in cows, or an accumulation of the end products of metabolism causes a clinical illness, e.g. acetonemia of dairy cows. Many diseases in this group really have their beginnings in a nutritional deficiency state. See also production diseases.
many disorders of metabolism can lead to neurologic abnormalities through alterations in electrolytes and acid-base balance, accumulation of endogenous toxins. See also encephalopathy.
see metabolic defect (above).
metabolic inhibition technique
a virus neutralization test in tissue culture in which phenol-red indicator is used to detect the acid metabolic products of actively metabolizing cells or the lack of metabolism when cells are infected and destroyed by the virus.
muscular dystrophies caused by metabolic defects; include systemic glycogenoses, deposits of a PAS-positive glycoprotein, the lipid storage disease of cats caused by carnitine deficiency.
groupings of enzymic processes leading to the synthesis or breakdown of carbohydrates, amino acids and lipids.
a muscle disease associated with a metabolic disorder, e.g. hyperadrenocorticism.
a disease of the nerves associated with a metabolic disorder, e.g. uremia, diabetes mellitus or hypothyroidism.
results of a spectrum of tests of metabolic functions.
metabolic profile test
the rate of energy metabolism in the body. The basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the rate of energy consumption by the body when it is completely at rest.
characterized by hypertension, insulin resistance, an abnormal plasma lipid profile, and obesity.
include histamine, other toxic amines, ketone bodies, phenols and cresols from the large intestine, which are normal end-products of metabolism and indigestion but if their normal excretion and detoxication are impeded, cause intoxication. See also toxin.
the water produced in the body by oxidative metabolism of food; it represents 5-10% of the body's water utilization.
the frequency with which an event or circumstance occurs per unit of time.
the proportion of a population affected by a specific condition during a prescribed, usually short, period of time.
the rate of occurrence of a specific attribute.
basal metabolic rate (BMR)
an expression of the rate at which oxygen is utilized in a fasting subject at complete rest as a percentage of a value established as normal for such a subject.
the number of births during one year for the total population (crude birth rate), for the female population (refined birth rate), or for the female population of reproductive age (true birth rate).
case fatality rate
the number of deaths due to a specific disease as compared with the total number of cases of the disease.
the rate of occurrence of e.g. disease in cohorts.
the number of deaths per stated number of animals (1000 or 10,000 or 100,000) in a certain region in a certain time period.
erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)
see erythrocyte sedimentation rate.
the number of deaths caused by a specific circumstance or disease, expressed as the absolute or relative number among individuals encountering the circumstance or having the disease.
five-year survival rate
an expression of the number of survivors with no trace of disease 5 years after each has been diagnosed or treated for the same disease.
forced expiratory flow rate (FEF)
see maximal expiratory flow rate (below).
glomerular filtration rate
an expression of the quantity of glomerular filtrate formed each minute in the nephrons of both kidneys, calculated by measuring the clearance of specific substances, e.g. inulin or creatinine.
an expression of the increase in size of an organic object per unit of time.
the number of contractions of the cardiac ventricles per unit of time.
describes the probability of a new case occurring during a stated time interval.
percentage of the population from which a specific infectious pathogen is isolated.
rate controlling enzymic steps in metabolic pathways. Often allosteric enzymes with allosteric effector sites but can be controlled through substrate availability, product removal or enzyme concentration.
maximal expiratory flow rate (MEFR)
the slope of the line connecting the points 200 ml and 1200 ml on the forced expiratory volume curve. See also pulmonary function tests. Called also FEF200-1200.
an expression of the amount of oxygen consumed by the body cells.
the number of cases of a given disease occurring in a specified period per unit of population.
death rate; the mortality rate of a disease is the ratio of the number of deaths from a given disease to the total number of cases of that disease.
percentage of reactors in a tested population.
the number of movements of the chest wall per unit of time, indicative of inspiration and expiration.
see relative risk.
the rate at which a sediment is deposited in a given volume of solution, especially when subjected to the action of a centrifuge. See also sedimentation rate.
expresses the frequency of a characteristic per unit of the population.
adaptation of a rate so that the conditions under which it occurred are comparable with those in which other rates have been estimated. There are several methods, e.g. the equivalent average death rate.