metabolic activation

metabolic activation

The chemical conversion of a relatively benign substance into a more hazardous one by normal biochemical processes in cells and tissues.
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GreenScreen HC is a pan-mechanistic detection assay capable of detecting all classes of genetic toxin, as well as being able to detect genotoxins formed through metabolic activation using S9 mix.
The basic assessment is a bacterial reverse mutation test, using a battery of different strains as well as metabolic activation.
Inhibitors of testosterone biosynthetic and metabolic activation enzymes.
Metabolic activation was induced by using an S-9 mixture containing the liver homogenate from male Wistar rats that had been injected intraperitoneally with 500 mg/kg bw Aroclor 1254 and sacrificed 5 days afterwards.
To anticipate hazardous in vivo metabolism that might affect the fate of novel pharmaceuticals, the ICH battery of in vitro genotoxicity tests requires that all compounds are tested with and without a metabolic activation system.
The toxicity of naphthalene depends on metabolic activation, and reactive metabolite binding depends on tissue and site susceptibility.
The natural history of knee osteoarthritis often is a process of punctuated equilibrium, with periods of metabolic activation and progression, interspersed with periods of relative nonprogression and metabolic dormancy.
We hypothesized that (1) a short-step, arm unsupported (Short) exercise technique would elicit a higher RPE at submaximal exercise intensities, (2) postexercise MRI would be able to detect the metabolic activation of the gluteus maximus immediately after aerobic (stepper) exercise, and (3) MRI would demonstrate a higher level of metabolic activation of the gluteus maximus with the Short technique based on the longer duration hip extension moment during arm-unsupported stair climbing [12].
In our earlier study norethynodrel was found to be genotoxic at 60 mg/ml in cultured human lymphocytes in the presence of metabolic activation [17].
Topics addressed include metabolic activation and detoxification of PAHs, biomonitoring of human exposure to PAHs, macromolecular adducts as biomarkers of human exposure to PAHs, DNA damage and mutagenesis induced by PAHs, mechanisms of repair of PAH-induced DNA damage, aberrant gene expression and cell signaling/epigenetic effects induced by PAHs, indicator assays for PAH-induced genotoxicity, and tumorigenicity of PAHs, genetic susceptibility to PAH-induced carcinogenesis.
These S-9 (supernatant 9000Xg) preparations were then aliquoted into five test tubes that contained a prepared reaction mixture that served as a Metabolic Activation System (MAS).