messenger RNA


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Related to messenger RNA: DNA, ribosomal RNA

RNA

 
messenger RNA (mRNA) see ribonucleic acid.
ribosomal RNA (rRNA) see ribonucleic acid.
transfer RNA (tRNA) see ribonucleic acid.

mes·sen·ger RNA (mRNA),

(mes'en-jĕr),
the RNA reflecting the exact nucleoside sequence of the genetically active DNA and carrying the "message" of the latter, coded in its sequence, to the cytoplasmic areas where protein is made in amino acid sequences specified by the mRNA, and hence primarily by the DNA; viral RNAs are considered to be natural messenger RNAs.

messenger RNA

n. Abbr. mRNA
The form of RNA that mediates the transfer of genetic information from the cell nucleus to ribosomes in the cytoplasm, where it serves as a template for protein synthesis. It is synthesized from a DNA template during the process of transcription.

messenger RNA (mRNA)

[mes′ənjər]
Etymology: ME, messangere, message bearer; RNA, ribonucleic acid
(in molecular genetics) an RNA fraction that carries information from deoxyribonucleic acid to the protein-synthesizing ribosomes of cells. mRNA contains codons that are eventually encoded into amino acids via the translation process.

messenger RNA

An RNA (ribonucleic acid) molecule which has coding regions and translation signals derived from a gene, carries the reverse template message from DNA, and is required for protein synthesis. mRNA is a nucleic acid intermediate that specifies the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide during translation. Under most circumstances, and in accordance with the so-called central dogma of biology, the message flows from DNA to RNA, which is then translated into protein. DNA is wrapped around proteins (histones in chromatin); the DNA then unwinds, allowing transcription by one of the three RNA polymerases, forming a primary (nuclear) RNA transcript that is then processed to remove the intervening RNA sequences (introns), yielding a mature mRNA molecule. The mature mRNA then passes through nuclear pores into the cytoplasm, where translation into proteins occurs. When a particular mRNA is no longer needed, it is degraded by ribonucleases.

mes·sen·ger RNA

(mRNA) (mes'ĕn-jĕr)
The RNA reflecting the exact nucleoside sequence of the genetically active DNA and carrying the "message" of the latter, coded in its sequence, to the cytoplasmic areas where protein is made in amino acid sequences specified by the mRNA, and hence primarily by the DNA; viral RNA is considered to be natural messenger RNA.

messenger RNA

Commonly written as mRNA, this is the molecule that reads the genetic code from DNA. Before this can happen the double helix must separate into two single strands. One of these carries the same sequence as the mRNA and is called the coding strand. The other is called the template, or antisense, strand and it is this strand that directs the synthesis of the mRNA by complementary base pairing. In RNA the base uracil replaces thymine. The messenger RNA molecule then leaves the cell nucleus and passes out through a nuclear membrane pore to the site of protein synthesis. There the appropriate amino acids are selected and placed in the right order by TRANSFER RNA which, using its anticodons, reads the code on the messenger RNA.

messenger RNA (mRNA)

a single stranded type of POLYNUCLEOTIDE molecule that comprises a sequence of ribonucleotides with the bases ADENINE, GUANINE, CYTOSINE and URACIL. mRNA is transcribed (see TRANSCRIPTION from the DNA and contains the sequence of instructions from which a PROTEIN is translated (see TRANSLATION by the action of RIBOSOMES.
References in periodicals archive ?
The scientists want to extend cell lifespan even further and arc experimenting with how to use messenger RNA to make the stem cells produce pro-survival factors.
Just messing with levels of a messenger RNA from another gene known as ZEB2 throws off PTEN protein levels and can lead to melanoma in mice, Pandolfi's group reported in another paper in the Oct.
If they grew their yeast in energy-rich broth that contained glycerol, a 3-carbon energy source, the riboswitch behaved as they expected, shutting off the glmS messenger RNA in response to increasing glucosamine concentrations.
Because they added a radioactive atom to the messenger RNA and fluorescent tags to the other proteins required for protein manufacture, the team could evaluate mRNA recruitment under various conditions - with and without a cap, for instance, and in the presence and absence of various other factors.
In transcription, single-stranded "messenger RNA" molecules that correspond to each expressed gene are produced; in other words, the messenger RNA is decoded, resulting in the production of a protein made from some combination of 20 amino acids.
Translation: a cellular process accomplished at special structures known as ribosomes that make a protein molecule from information contained in messenger RNA.
Blood taken from 87 patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma was examined for alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) messenger RNA (mRNA) before and immediately after surgery in this prospective study.
When Nirenberg used polyuridylic acid as messenger RNA, it worked.
Luigi Warren, whose pioneering work on "footprint-free" reprogramming using messenger RNA was the foundation for Allele's breakthrough.
The companies will use messenger RNA technology that targets tumor neoantigens for a more robust anti-cancer immune response.
The researchers, from Brigham and Women's Hospital, and Harvard Stem Cell Institute, and collaborators at MIT and Massachusetts General Hospital, inserted modified strands of messenger RNA into connective tissue stem cells --called mesenchymal stem cells--which stimulated the cells to produce adhesive surface proteins and secrete interleukin-10, an anti-inflammatory molecule.
Treatment consists of a single injection of the messenger RNA molecule, which contains growth protein code.