Abbreviated International Society of Nephrology/Renal Pathology Society classification of lupus nephritis (2003) Class I Minimal mesangial
lupus nephritis Class II Mesangial
proliferative lupus nephritis Class III Focal lupus nephritis (<50% involvement) Class IV Diffuse segmental or diffuse global lupus nephritis ([greater than or equal to] 50% involvement) Class V Membranous lupus nephritis * Class VI Advanced sclerosing lupus nephritis * Can be pure membranous lupus nephritis or mixed class V if combined with class III or class IV.
Protective effect of total glucosides of Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora against oxidative stress in glomerular mesangial
cells induced by high glucose.
Diabetes can result in a progressive decline in glomerular filtration rate characterized by glomerular hyperfiltration, glomerular and tubular epithelial hypertrophy, increased urinary albumin excretion, increased basement membrane thickness and mesangial
expansion with the accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins (Jain 2012).
Each biopsy result was classified according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification (class I normal, class II pure mesangial
alteration, class III focal segmental glomerulonephritis, class IV diffuse glomerulonephritis, class V diffuse membranous glomerulonephritis, and class VI advanced sclerosing glomerulonephritis).
These clinical manifestations are usually sustained by membranous GN histological pattern, defined by mesangial
proliferation and basement membrane thickening at microscope, subendothelial and mesangial
electron-dense deposits made up by IgM, IgG3 and C3 at electron microscopy, suggesting deposition of circulating immune complexes (1-2, 5).
29] It significantly improved glomerular and tubular lesions, and reduced the thickness of glomerular basement membrane and mesangial
Light microscopy of the kidney biopsy revealed segmental areas of mesangial
collapse in most glomeruli (Figure 1) with some global glomerulosclerosis (Figure 2).
Estradiol reverses TGF- 1-stimulated type 4 collagen gene transcription in murine mesangial
ADT also stimulates synthesis and secretion of extracellular matrix in cultured rat mesangial
cells by interacting with a receptor that has not yet been identified (9).
Up to 10 or 11 glomeruli were globally sclerotic, those with open capillary loops were mildly enlarged, and they had mild mesangial
Glomerular diagnoses include chronic glomerulonephritis, congenital nephrotic syndrome, diffuse mesangial
sclerosis (Denys-Drash syndrome), diabetic nephropathy, familial nephritis, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, hemolytic uremic syndrome, Henoch-Schonlein nephritis, idiopathic crescentic glomerulonephritis, IgA nephropathy, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis types I and II, membranous nephropathy, sickle cell nephropathy, and systemic immunologic disease including systemic lupus erythematosus.
Structural changes of FSGS include sclerosis of the glomerulus, podocyte erosion, and deposition of extracellular matrix in the mesangial
tissue which become solidified.