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mental

 [men´tal]
1. pertaining to the mind.
2. pertaining to the chin.
mental disorder any clinically significant behavioral or psychological syndrome characterized by distressing symptoms, significant impairment of functioning, or significantly increased risk of death, pain, or other disability. Mental disorders are assumed to result from some behavioral, psychological, or biological dysfunction in the individual. The concept does not include deviant behavior, disturbances that are essentially conflicts between the individual and society, or expected and culturally sanctioned responses to particular events.
mental retardation less than average general intellectual functioning that brings with it some degree of impaired adaptation in learning, social adjustment, or maturation, or in all three areas; it is now classified as a developmental disability.

Mental retardation is a relative term. Its meaning depends on what society demands of the individual in learning, skills, and social responsibility. Many people who are considered developmentally challenged in the complex modern world would get along normally in a simpler society.

Diagnosis: There is no absolute measurement for retardation. At one time the different types were classified only according to the apparent severity of the retardation. Since the most practical standard was intelligence, the degree of retardation was based on the score of the patient on intelligence tests such as the intelligence quotient (IQ). The average person is considered to have an IQ of between 90 and 110, and those who score below 70 are considered mentally retarded.

In the past, the different groupings were classified in terms such as feebleminded, idiot, imbecile, and moron. Today, most health care providers use the following classifications: for IQ's from 50 to 70, mild; 35 to 50, moderate; 20 to 35, severe; under 20, profound. Whatever classifications are used, it is agreed that IQ measurements are only one part of the factors to be considered in determining mental retardation. Others, such as the patient's adaptability to surroundings, the services and training available, and the amount of control shown over his or her emotions, are also very important.

About 85 per cent of patients considered mentally retarded are in the least severe, or mild, group. Those in this group do not usually have obvious physical defects and thus are not always easy to identify as mentally retarded while they are still infants. Sometimes such a child's mental defects do not show up until the time of entering school, when the child has difficulty learning and keeping up with others in the same age group. Many persons who are in the mild category, as adults can find employment or a place in society suitable to their abilities, so that they are no longer identified as mentally retarded.

Cause: The cause of mental retardation is often unidentifiable; known ones are classified as either genetic or acquired. Genetic conditions include chromosomal abnormalities such as down syndrome and klinefelter's syndrome and errors of metabolism such as phenylketonuria, hypothyroidism, and tay-sachs disease. Acquired conditions may be prenatal, perinatal, or postnatal. Prenatal conditions include rubella and other viral infections, toxins, placental insufficiency, and blood type incompatibility. Perinatal causes are anoxia, birth injury, and prematurity. Postnatal causes may include infections, poisons, poor nutrition, trauma, and sociocultural factors such as deprivation.

Many conditions that can cause severe retardation can be diagnosed during pregnancy, and in some cases proper treatment can lessen or even prevent retardation. Proper care for the mother during pregnancy and for the baby in the first months of life is also important.

men·tal

(men'tăl),
1. Relating to the mind.
2. Relating to the chin. Synonym(s): genial, genian

mental

/men·tal/ (ment´'l)
1. pertaining to the mind.
2. pertaining to the chin.

mental 1

(mĕn′tl)
adj.
1. Of or relating to the mind: mental powers; mental health.
2. Executed or performed by the mind; existing in the mind: mental calculation; a mental image.

men′tal·ly adv.

mental 2

(mĕn′tl)
adj.
Of or relating to the chin.

mental1

[men′təl]
Etymology: L, mens, mind
1 of, relating to, or characteristic of the mind or psyche.
2 existing in the mind; performed or accomplished by the mind.
3 of, relating to, or characterized by a disorder of the mind.
4 slang term used to describe clients believed to have a mental health disorder.

mental2

Etymology: L, mentum, chin
pertaining to the chin.

secondary sex characteristic

Endocrinology The constellation of changes in hair distribution, body configuration, and genital size in boys or girls at the time of puberty
Secondary Sex characteristic–
External genitalia Penis ↑ in length/diameter; scrotum becomes pigmented and rugose
Internal genitalia Prostate, bulbourethral glands, and seminal vesicle enlarge, begin to secrete
Body Shoulders broaden, muscle mass ↑
Hair Hair, hair, everywhere; beard, back, chest, anus
Mental More aggressive, sexual interest awakens
Skin Sebaceous glands ↑, 'Zit Follies' begin
Voice Larynx, vocal cords ↑ in size and/or length; voice deepens
Secondary Sex characteristic–
External genitalia ↑ Size breast, vagina
Internal genitalia ↑ Size uterus
Body Shoulders are narrow, hips broad, thighs converge and arms diverge–broad carrying angle
Hair More scalp hair, less body hair, ♀ escutcheon
Voice Nada; voice unchanged

men·tal

(men'tăl)
1. Relating to the mind.
2. Relating to the chin.
Synonym(s): genial, genian.
[L. mens (ment-), mind]

mental

Pertaining to the mind.

men·tal

(men'tăl)
1. Relating to the mind.
2. Relating to the chin.
[L. mens (ment-), mind]

mental

1. pertaining to the mind.
2. pertaining to the chin.

mental nerves
see Table 14.
mental organ
an accumulation of apocrine tubular glands in the intermandibular space of swine.
mental state
includes states of excitement, e.g. frenzy, mania and panic, and depression states, including somnolence, lassitude, narcolepsy, catalepsy, syncope and coma. Delirium is not diagnosable in animals but aimless wandering and headpressing are reminiscent of that mental state in humans.
mental status
assessment of level of patient awareness or consciousness.

Patient discussion about mental

Q. Is depression is a mental disease? how do you treat it?

A. I can confirm as a patient being treated for depression that it is mental. Its supposed to be caused by a complicated chemical imbalance in the brain.

Q. Regarding mental illness My mom is suffering from mental illness. As she remains absent minded through out the day, moreover remains silent (talkless), suffering with idiot ideas. Pls advise me how may i resolve this prob. She is sufferring from last 4 years....!!! and now it has increased. We are also under supervision of phycologist but he used to kept her on sleep as alternative. I need yr some corrective suggestion & help. Regards Parth

A. Parth- Dan could be right, there might be another diagnosis for your mother. it sounds like late stages of Parkinson's, but that would be hard to miss due to a very clear first stages.. if Schizophrenia was diagnosed properly - you should know that there are cases of recovery but it's about 15%. so it's not much, but a dual treatment can improve her state. is she taking any medication?

Q. In what ways does bipolar different from mental depression?

A. bipolar disorder is like being on a giant swing that one side is depression and the other is mania. you suffer from depression episodes and mania episodes. mania is an excessive good mood, sounds good but it's not. it''s wearing out you and your close ones. make you buy stuff you don't need and such.

More discussions about mental