menopausal syndrome


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men·o·pau·sal syn·drome

recurring symptoms experienced by some women during the climacteric period; they include hot flashes, chills, headache, irritability, and depression.

menopause

The cessation of menstrual activity in women due to failure to form ovarian follicles, which normally occurs at age 45–50; menopause < age of 40 is considered premature.

Clinical findings
Menstrual irregularity, vasomotor instability, hot flushes, irritability, increased weight, painful breasts, dyspareunia, increased/decreased libido, atrophy of urogenital epithelium and skin, ASHD, MI, strokes, and osteoporosis (which can be lessened by hormone replacement therapy (HRT), the disadvantage of which is an increase in endometrial and breast cancer, possibly hypertension, thromboembolism and gallbladder disease).

Physiological changes
• Bladder—Cystourethritis, frequency/urgency, stress incontinence.
• Breasts—Decreased Size, softer consistency, sagging.
• Cardiovascular—Angina, ASHD, CAD.
• Endocrine—Hot flashes/flushes.
• Mucocutaneous—Atrophy, dryness, pruritus, facial hirsutism, dry mouth. 
• Neurologic—Psychological, sleep disturbances.
• Pelvic floor—Uterovaginal prolapse.
• Skeleton—Osteoporosis, fractures, low back pain. 
• Vagina—Bloody discharge, dyspareunia, vaginitis. 
• Vocal cords—Deepened voice.
• Vulva—Atrophy, dystrophy, pruritus.
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