membrane transport


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Related to membrane transport: Membrane transport proteins

membrane transport

The active movement of proteins from the site of production in the cell to the site of storage or to the cell membrane for eventual release. Membrane transport requires:
(1) Translocation-competent membranes (e.g., endoplasmic reticulum, peroxisomal membrane and the mitochondrial inner membrane); and
(2) Membrane-targeting signals to direct the molecules, often in the form of an NH2-terminal oligopeptide with peroxisomal target proteins.

The transported protein or preprotein has one of two basic structures: either a completely hydrophilic primary sequence or one which is hydrophilic at both the NH2 and COOH ends, separated in the middle by an apolar hydrophobic core.

membrane transport

movement of charged molecules into/out of the cell via specific cell membrane sites (receptors), e.g. process allowing ingress of local anaesthetic agents into nerve fibre

membrane

a thin layer of tissue that covers a surface, lines a cavity, or divides a space or organ.

alveolocapillary membrane
a thin tissue barrier through which gases are exchanged between the alveolar air and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries.
membrane-attack complex
complement components C5-C9 which form in terminal stage of either of the complement pathways and lead to cell lysis.
basilar membrane
the lower boundary of the scala media of the ear.
Bowman's membrane
a thin layer of basement membrane between the outer layer of stratified epithelium and the substantia propria of the cornea.
Bruch's membrane
the inner layer of the choroid, separating it from the pigmented layer of the retina.
membrane carrier
a mechanism in the cell membrane of epithelial cells in the intestinal mucosa which facilitates the rapid transport of for example glucose, into the cell and thus into the bloodstream.
cell membrane
plasma membrane (below).
membrane channels
see channel.
continuous membrane
the middle of the three membranes on the outside of the yolk of the hen egg.
cricothyroid membrane
the membrane connecting the thyroid cartilage to the cricoid cartilage. It is extensive in the horse and surgical incision through it allows access to the interior of the larynx.
Descemet's membrane
the posterior lining membrane of the cornea; it is a thin hyaline membrane between the substantia propria and the endothelial layer of the cornea.
drum membrane
tympanic membrane (below).
extraembryonic m's
those that protect the embryo or fetus and provide for its nutrition, respiration and excretion; the yolk sac (umbilical vesicle), allantois, amnion, chorion, decidua and placenta.
extravitelline membrane
the outermost of the three membranes on the outside of the yolk of the hen egg.
false membrane
a membrane similar to the pseudomembrane; fibrinous exudates readily loosened from underlying tissue, as in croupous or pseudomembranous inflammation.
fenestrated membrane
one of the perforated elastic sheets of the tunica intima and tunica media of arteries.
fetal m's
see fetal membranes. See also extraembryonic membranes (above).
fibrous membrane
the strong, fibrous support layer in a joint capsule.
Henle's membrane
see henle's membrane.
hyaline membrane
1. a membrane between the outer root sheath and inner fibrous layer of a hair follicle.
3. a homogeneous eosinophilic membrane lining alveolar ducts and alveoli, frequently found at necropsy in premature human infants. See also hyaline membrane disease.
hyoglossal membrane
a fibrous lamina connecting the under-surface of the tongue with the hyoid bone.
interosseous membrane
the membrane connecting the shaft of the fibula to the tibia.
limiting membrane
one that constitutes the border of some tissue or structure.
mucous membrane
the membrane covered with epithelium that lines many tubular organs of the body.
nictitating membrane
see membrana nictitans.
nuclear membrane
1. either of the membranes, inner and outer, comprising the nuclear envelope.
2. nuclear envelope.
olfactory membrane
the olfactory portion of the mucous membrane lining the nasal fossa.
periodontal membrane
perivitelline membrane
the innermost of the three layers on the outside of the yolk in the hen egg.
placental membrane
the membrane that separates the fetal from the maternal blood in the placenta.
plasma membrane
the membrane that encloses a cell; it is composed of phospholipids, glycolipids, cholesterol and proteins. The primary structure is a lipid bilayer. Phospholipid molecules have an electrically charged 'head' that attracts water and a hydrocarbon 'tail' that repels water; they line up side by side in two opposing layers, with their heads on the inner or outer surface of the membrane and their tails in the core, from which water is excluded. The other lipids affect the structural properties of the membrane. Proteins embedded in the membrane transport specific molecules across the membrane, act as hormone receptors, or perform other functions.
membrane potential
of a cell is the voltage difference across the cell membrane resulting from the differential concentrations of sodium and potassium on either side of the membrane. The resting potential, for example in a nerve cell, is altered by the temporary opening of the sodium channels in the membrane during an action potential, allowing a redistribution of the ions.
membrane proteins
the large number of proteins attached to a cell membrane. They include integral proteins, called also intrinsic, which are embedded in the phospholipid bi-layer of the cell membrane, and peripheral proteins, called also extrinsic, because they are loosely bound and can readily be extracted without damage to the cell membrane.
pupillary membrane
a vascular membrane which occupies the pupil in the embryo stage, completely covering the anterior surface of the lens but subsequently disappears. See also persistent pupillary membrane.
Reissner's membrane
the thin anterior wall of the cochlear duct, separating it from the scala vestibuli.
Scarpa's membrane
tympanic membrane, secondary.
semipermeable membrane
one permitting passage through it of some but not all substances.
serosal membrane
see serous membrane (below).
serous membrane
the membrane lining the walls of the body cavities and enclosing the contained organs; it consists of mesothelium lying upon a connective tissue layer and it secretes a watery fluid.
shell membrane
the membrane on the outside of the soft contents of the hen egg and just inside the shell. It consists of two membranes close together, with an air cell in between.
synovial membrane
see synovial membrane.
membrane transport
transport of electrolytes across semipermeable membranes with the aid of a transporter.
unit membrane
the trilaminar structure of all cellular membranes (such as the plasma membrane, nuclear membranes, mitochondrial membranes, endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes) as they appear in electron micrographs. The biochemical structure is a lipid bilayer.
wing membrane
the membrane comprising the wing of the bat.
yolk membrane
the membrane investing the yolk of the hen egg; it includes (from the inside out) the perivitelline, the continuous and the extravitelline membranes.
References in periodicals archive ?
The methods developed would be widely applicable to other membrane transport proteins.
Their goal is to fill a gap for graduate students and researchers between general texts on plant physiology and detailed studies of specific topics such as membrane transport.
One possibility is that HQ interacts with root cell membranes by disrupting membrane transport and this in turn leads to a breakdown mineral transport and ultimately water transport.
This initiative will provide R21 pilot and feasibility grants to use nonmammalian models to develop reagents, methodologies, and novel approaches to the study of membrane transport, especially those membrane transport processes involved in diseases of relevance to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) and those involved and required for normal cell function of interest to the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS).
With a detailed analysis of the mass transport through membrane layers and its effect on different separation processes, this book provides a comprehensive look at the theoretical and practical aspects of membrane transport properties and functions.
Their topics include probing membrane transport of single live cells using single-molecule detection and single-nanoparticle assay, detecting DNA using enzymatically amplified single nucleotide polymorphism imaging, and electrochemistry inside and outside single nerve cells.
The areas of investigation concern the structure and function of muscle proteins, the mechanism of membrane transport processes, and the control of cell growth and gene function.
Experience in the biochemistry, molecular biology, or physiology of membrane transport is expected.
com) announces updates to their Membrane Transport research database.
Contract notice: Membrane transport of pre-paid gas flow meters (ef gm).
They include a variety of potassium channels, CLC chloride channels, sodium ion channels, aquaporins facilitating the membrane transport of water, and bacteria mechano-sensitive channels serving as passages for various osmolytes including ions.
In 2002, the technical section is divided into four sections: Overcoming Barriers For Cellular Membrane Transport, Solubilization and Particle Engineering, Drug Delivery Platforms for Product Differentiation, and New Inhalation Technologies.

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