melanonychia striata

melanonychia striata

A descriptive term for the presence of a longitudinal dark stripe arising in the lunula of a (finger- or toe-) nail bed, and extending to the distal end of the nail in the axis of normal nail growth.

Single melanonychia striata
▪ Neoplastic
   – Melanocytic;
   – Melanoma;
   – Melanocytic hyperplasia;
   – Nevus.
▪ Nonmelanocytic
   – Bowen's disease;
   – Myxoid cyst;
   – Wart.

Pseudo-Melanonychia Striata
▪ Haemorrhage
▪ Foreign body
▪ Onychomycosis

Multiple melanonychia striata
▪ Drugs and chemical:
   – Antibiotics: cyclines, sulfonamide;
   – Antimalarials;
   – Beta blockers;
   – Chemotherapy;
   – Heavy metals: arsenic, gold, mercury;
   – Ketoconazole;
   – Phenothiazine;
   – Psoralen;
   – Zidovudine;
▪ Endocrine:
   – Corticotropin therapy;
   – Corticotropin-producing tumours;
   – Melanocyte-stimulating hormone;
   – Addison's disease;
   – Hyperthyroidism;
   – Pregnancy.
▪ Genetic and Ethnic:
   – Dark-pigmented persons;
   – Peutz-Jeghers syndrome.
▪ Infection and Inflammation:
   – Onychomycosis;
   – Lichen planus;
   – Lichen striatus.
▪ Metabolic and Nutritional:
   – Haemochromatosis;
   – Haemosiderosis;
   – Kwashiorkor;
   – Vitamin B12 deficiency.
▪ Miscellaneous:
   – Laugier-Hunziker syndrome;
   – Carpal tunnel syndrome;
   – Radiation;
   – Trauma;
   – Self-inflicted, onychomania.
References in periodicals archive ?
The only way to definitively rule out melanoma in a case of melanonychia striata is to perform a biopsy of the nail matrix, according to Dr.
Some recent articles in the medical literature suggest that if cases of melanonychia striata in childhood are stable and not atypical in appearance, observation may be an option.
Every case of melanonychia striata must be evaluated individually, Dr.
Melanonychia striata affect about 1% of whites and 11% of Japanese individuals.
A debate has recently arisen in the literature regarding the approach to melanonychia striata in children, for whom the probability of melanoma is far lower than in adults.
SAN DIEGO -- A longitudinal pigmented streak beneath the nail could either be a benign melanonychia striata or a far-from-benign subungual melanoma, but despite the vast difference in prognosis, the two conditions are very difficult to tell apart clinically, Dr.
Furthermore, melanonychia striata can sometimes be an early sign of melanoma, she noted.
Benign melanonychia striata is uncommon in whites but occurs in virtually 100% of African Americans by age 50 years.