One approach to promote tyrosinase maturation in melanocytes
in culture is to increase the levels of tyrosine or L-DOPA, which accounts for an early observation, prior to genetic classification of albinism, that hairbulbs incubated in high levels of tyrosine could indicate whether the type of OCA was tyrosinase-negative (no increase in melanin) or -positive (heavily pigmented hairbulbs post incubation).
They confirmed that melanocytes
increase in number following exposure to solar simulated UV radiation.
Tyrosinase-related proteins suppress tyrosinase-mediated cell death of melanocytes
and melanoma cells.
Taken together with the in vitro results, the mechanism underlying the depigmenting effects of the natural products may be partly contributed to their inhibition to the proliferation, tyrosinase activity and melanin synthesis of the UVB activated melanocytes
have been shown to migrate from the outer root sheath of the hair follicle during development and during repigmentation of the epidermis in patients with vitiligo, thus providing evidence that they are normal cellular constituents of the hair follicle.
Retinoids, such as tretinoin, tazarotene, and adapalene, reduce pigmentation by normalizing the activation of the melanocytes
in the skin.
The natural actives target a specific receptor on the melanocytes
, which results in the production of a pattern of pigments corresponding to one's individual skin type.
Areas of skin with patches of vitiligo have no or very few melanocytes
Vitiligo is caused by the dysfunction of melanocytes
, the cells responsible
Afamelanotide, a first-in-class investigational chemical analogue of alpha-melanocyte
-stimulating hormone, is a melanocortin-1 agonist that activates melanocytes
and increases melanin levels in the skin.
Specialized cells around the root of each hair strand, called melanocytes
, pump out the pigment as hair grows.
Cancer affects two major cell types in the human skin: epithelial cells and melanocytes