mediastinal lesion

mediastinal lesion

Any mass, benign or malignant, infectious or reactive, that is found in the mediastinum.

Aetiology
▪ Non-neoplastic.
▪ Developmental:
   – Cysts;
   – Tissue in an abnormal location.
▪ Inflammatory/fibrosing conditions
▪ Thymic hyperplasia.
▪ Neoplastic.
▪ Thymic tumours.
▪ Lymphomas:
   – Hodgkin lymphoma;
   – Primary DLBC lymphoma;
   – Lymphoblastic lymphoma.
▪ Germ cell tumours.
▪ Neurogenic tumours:
   – Posterior mediastinum—sympathetic chain and nerve roots.
▪ Sympathetic nervous system:
   – Neuroblastoma;
   – Ganglioneuroblastoma;
   – Ganglioneuroma.
▪ Peripheral nerve sheath tumours:
   – Schwannoma;
   – Neurofibroma;
   – MPNST—De novo, von Recklinghausens, post-radiotherapy.
▪ Soft tissue tumours: 
   – Vascular—Lymphangioma, haemangioma, angisarcoma;
   – Fat—Lipoma, lipoblastoma, thymolipoma, liposarcoma;
   – Smooth muscle—Leiomyoma, leiomyosarcoma
   – Bone—Chondroma, chondrosarcoma;
   – Other—Solitary fibrous tumour (benign or malignant), mesothelioma.
▪ Ectopic tissue:
   – Thyroid lesions;
   – Parathyroid lesions.
▪ Paraganglioma.
▪ Oesophageal.
▪ Metastatic tumours (carcinoma, etc.).
▪ Others:
   – Meningioma;
   – Chordoma;
   – Myxoma;
   – Granular cell tumour;
   – Amyloid;
   – Langerhans cell histiocytosis.
References in periodicals archive ?
However, recently Inoue et al (64) reported a patient with sclerosing mediastinitis who had elevated serum IgG4 and increased numbers of IgG4-positive plasma cells in the mediastinal lesion.
Key Words: superior pericardial recess, mediastinal lesion, computed tomography
Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging demonstrated that the neck mass detected on sonography was a homogenous anterior mediastinal lesion extending to the neck, compatible with hyperplasia of the thymus (Fig.
Finally, the cervicothoracic sign (Figure 6) is used to determine the location of a mediastinal lesion in the upper chest.
6) The case of our patient 1 illustrates how a mediastinal lesion may mimic a thyroid mass on physical examination but be readily apparent as such on CT.
13-16) This article demonstrates current imaging techniques in diagnosing mediastinal lesions using MDCT, PET-CT and MRI.
Material and Method: The EUS-FNA findings of 10 patients who had EUS examination because of mediastinal lesions between May 2008 and November 2009 in our hospital gastroenterology clinic, were retrospectively reviewed.
11) Differentials of fat-containing mediastinal lesions are lipoma, liposarcoma, mediastinal lipomatosis, teratoma, diaphragmatic hernias, extramedullary erythropoiesis, lipoid pneumonia, lipoblastoma and cardiac liposarcomas.
They compare neoplastic mimics with neoplasms at clinical, gross, and histologic levels, and discuss general considerations for pseudotumors, pseudoneoplastic lesions of the lung, pleural lesions, thymic and mediastinal lesions, pseudoneoplastic lesions of the heart and blood vessels, and pseudoneoplastic pericardial lesions.
Systematic transesophageal echocardiography for detection of mediastinal lesions in patients with multiple injuries.
X-chromosome inactivation pattern analysis could be applied to demonstrate tumor cell clonality in the CNS and mediastinal lesions.

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