massive hemoptysis

massive hemoptysis

spitting up large volumes of blood; amounts exceeding 300 mL daily are considered massive hemoptysis.
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7) Bronchial artery embolization is the treatment of choice for massive hemoptysis not controlled by another procedure.
Hemoptysis had been graded depending on severity as massive: definition of massive hemoptysis varies from 100 mL/day to more than 1,000 mL/day with hemodynamic compromise, usually > 400 mL/day (5%-15% cases).
Massive hemoptysis is a life threatening respiratory emergency with high mortality and the bronchial artery (BA) is the most frequent source [1].
Surgical resection of invaded lobe and antifungal agent are required for the pulmonary mucormycosis accompanied with massive hemoptysis.
Massive hemoptysis is the most serious medical emergency and warrants swift and comprehensive evaluation of the lung parenchyma, airways, and thoracic vasculature.
Major bleed event (intracranial hemorrhage, gastrointestinal tract hemorrhage, massive hemoptysis caused by hemodynamic instability, decrease in hemoglobin =5 g/dL, decrease in hematocrit =15%); moderate bleeding (hemoptysis, hematemesis =100 mL/ day, melena, and gross hematuria); and mild bleeding (hemoptysis, hematemesis less than 100 mL/day, hematoma after puncture, skin ecchymosis, mucosal and gingival bleeding, and microscopic hematuria).
5) This condition creates therapeutic dilemma because of the risk of massive hemoptysis and emboli.
Management includes surgical resection with thora cotomy or video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) aiming to avoid complications such as massive hemoptysis and infection.
Massive hemoptysis of pulmonary origin: Diagnosis and treatment.
4%, (6,7) and these events occur more commonly in segmental pulmonary arteries to the right lower lobe and right middle lobe, carrying up to 50% mortality secondary to aspiration and asphyxia due to uncontrolled massive hemoptysis.

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