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systematic therapeutic stroking or kneading of the body.
cardiac massage intermittent compression of the heart by pressure applied either over the sternum (closed cardiac massage) or directly to the heart through an opening in the chest wall (open cardiac massage).
simple massage in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as stimulation of the skin and underlying tissues with varying degrees of hand pressure to decrease pain, produce relaxation, and/or improve circulation.
vibratory massage massage by rapidly repeated light percussion with a vibrating hammer or sound.


A method of manipulation of the body or part of the body by rubbing, pinching, kneading, or tapping.
Synonym(s): tripsis (2)
[Fr. from G. massō, to knead]


/mas·sage/ (mah-sahzh´) [Fr.] systematic therapeutic friction, stroking, or kneading of the body.
cardiac massage  intermittent compression of the heart by pressure applied over the sternum (closed cardiac m.) or directly to the heart through an opening in the chest wall (open cardiac m.); done to reinstate and maintain circulation.
carotid sinus massage  firm rotatory pressure applied to one side of the neck over the carotid sinus, causing vagal stimulation and used to slow or terminate tachycardia.
electrovibratory massage , vibratory massage that performed with an electric vibrator.


(mə-säzh′, -säj′)
1. The rubbing or kneading of parts of the body especially to aid circulation, relax the muscles, or provide sensual stimulation.
2. An act or instance of such rubbing or kneading.
tr.v. mas·saged, mas·saging, mas·sages
1. To give a massage to.
2. To treat by means of a massage.

mas·sag′er n.


[məsäzh, məsäj′]
Etymology: Fr, masser, to stroke
the manipulation of the soft tissue of the body through stroking, rubbing, kneading, or tapping, to increase circulation, to improve muscle tone, and to relax the patient. The procedure is performed either with the bare hands or through some mechanical means, such as a vibrator. The most common sites for massage are the back, knees, elbows, and heels. Care is taken not to massage inflamed areas, particularly of the extremities, because of the danger of loosening blood clots. Open wounds and areas of rash, tumor, or excessive sensitivity are avoided. Even if the extremities (legs) are not inflamed, they should not be massaged if the client has been immobilized for an extended period of time. The procedure is performed with the patient prone or on the side, comfortably positioned, with an emollient lotion or cream applied to the area to be massaged. The caregiver's hands are warm, and excessive pressure is avoided to prevent pain or injury. Kinds of massage are cardiac massage, effleurage, flagellation, friction, frôlement, pétrissage, tapotement,and vibration.
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Back massage pattern


a nursing intervention from the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) defined as stimulation of the skin and underlying tissues with varying degrees of hand pressure to decrease pain, produce relaxation, and/or improve circulation. See also Nursing Interventions Classification.


A method of manipulation of the body by rubbing, pinching, kneading, or tapping.
[Fr. from G. massō, to knead]


Stimulation of skin and muscle by rubbing, kneading, stroking, pummelling or hand-hammering with therapeutic intent. Massage has little physical effect but the psychological and symbolic effect of human touch can be deeply soothing and can relieve symptoms, especially those of undue muscle tension.


n the application of diverse manual techniques of touch and stroking to muscles and soft tissue to achieve relaxation and to improve the client's well-being. See also bodywork and massage therapy.
Massage.Benefits of massage.
Muscle relaxation
Lowers blood pressure
Stimulates circulation
Increases diuresis
Stimulates lymphatic drainage
Reduces oedema
Pain relieving
Mental relaxation
Releases emotions
Facilitates communication
Aids sleep
Time for oneself
massage chair (m·säjˑ·cherˑ),
n portable, padded chair designed to fully support the relaxed weight of the massage client.
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Massage chair.
massage table (m·säjˑ·tāˑ·bl),
n padded table designed specifically for massage in a recumbent position.
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Massage table.
massage, Aston, gentle tissue work that provides tension relief, evens body tone, and integrates structural change.
massage, Bindgeweb (bīnˈ·dj·webˈ·m·säzhˑ),
n a style of massage applied to the connective tissue system in the body according to the areas of tenderness that correspond to certain acupuncture points. Treatment is given with the middle finger in a series of strokes without a lubricant.
massage, classical Western,
n method of therapeutic friction, kneading and stroking of the body derived from European anatomic and physiologic concepts.
massage, connective tissue (CTM),
n a diagnostic and therapeutic treatment that involves stroking and pulling deep connective tissues to release the existing tension and return them to a natural alignment. May be uncomfortable and produce vasodilatation and sweating.
massage, deep-tissue,
n a style of massage that uses strong pressure; slow, deep strokes; and friction across the muscle grain to release chronic muscle tension.
massage, electrovibratory,
n technique in which vibrations are applied to the body through electrical means.
massage, intercompetition (inˈ·ter·kämˈ·p·tiˑ·shn m·säzhˑ),
n sports massage given at an athletic event.
massage, neuromuscular,
n a style of massage used to relieve pain, stimulate circulation, and loosen trigger points. This form of massage focuses on individual muscles rather than muscle groups and uses deep pressure.
massage, orthopedic,
n a therapeutic approach to injury and pathology treatment of the locomotor system; uses multiple techniques.
massage, recovery,
n massage designed to address the needs of an uninjured athlete directly after a competition or a vigorous workout. The focus is on minimizing fatigue or soreness and cleansing tissues to shorten recuperation time.
massage, rehabilitation,
n mas-sage used specifically to speed re-covery after surgery or in cases of injury.
massage, remedial,
n massage designed to help recovery from mild to moderate injuries.
massage, sports,
n a style of massage that works specifically on problems resulting from athletic performance, training, and injury. This form of massage uses techniques similar to those of Swedish and deep-tissue massages. See also massage, deep-tissue and massage, Swedish.
massage, Swedish,
n systematic soft tissue manipulation applied directly to the skin via effleurage, petrissage, friction, tapotement, and vibration. Developed by Swedish physiologist and gymnast Per Henrik Ling (1776–1839).
massage, Swiss reflex,
n conceived by Shirley Price in 1987 and based upon the principles of reflexogy, according to which energy flow lines in the body connect at certain reflex points. Essential oils are blended with a bland cream that the therapist massages into the reflex points of the body. Method involves at-home patient preparation as well as ongo-ing client-therapist dialogue during treatments. Therapists must be accredited.
massage, systemic,
n a structured form of massage used to enhance one organ system, usually the circulatory or lymphatic system.
massage, Thai, a style of bodywork that incorporates aspects of Ayurveda, Chinese medicine, and Thai Buddhist meditation. Its form is similar to like facilitated yoga because of its emphasis on opening and stretching the body. It uses acupuncture meridians to move energy, and its slow pace is conducive to of contemplative states of consciousness. Also called
noad bo-rom, Thai yoga-massage, Thailand medical massage, or
traditional Thai massage.


systematic therapeutic stroking or kneading of the body or part.

acupressure massage
massage therapy based on the Chinese meridian theory in which pressure is applied to acupuncture points to keep energy channels open.
cardiac massage
intermittent compression of the heart by pressure applied through the chest wall (closed cardiac massage) or directly to the heart through an opening in the chest wall (open cardiac massage). See also cardiac massage.
cold massage
uses ice to massage to skin. Vasoconstriction and delayed nerve conduction in deep tissues raises the pain threshold.
friction massage
applied across the direction of underlying fibers to promote blood flow and prevent adhesions.
genitalic massage
of the seminal vesicles in bulls or the penis in male dogs for the purpose of collecting semen, of the clitoris in cows and goat does for the collection of urine.
massage therapy
a technique of physical therapy in which hands and body are used to massage soft tissues. Its objective is to improve circulation and muscle function, release scar tissue and produce relaxation.
trigger massage
massage techniques are centered on areas of maximal tenderness in muscle tissue, detectable as taut bands. Called also myotherapy.
vibratory massage
massage by rapidly repeated light percussion with a vibrating hammer or sound.

Patient discussion about massage

Q. Does massage help............ Does massage help people with chronic pain, too?

A. There are many pains and they need different cures. Acupressure (and acupuncture), massage, music therapy, aroma therapy, and so on. This is not black magic, you can try it and maybe one of these cures help you. Acupressure help me always to disappear my headache. There are invisible lines and points on our body and if you massage them then the sensation will change (that is the pain will vanish).

Q. Can massage really help her? My cousin sister who is with fibromyalgia also feels some pain. Can massage really help her?

A. Not only the person with fibromyalgia but anyone can benefit from the massage. If you're a newbie and have not had much bodywork, start slowly. Having someone stroke your "sore" spots may feel a bit "ouchy," but that type of touch therapy may be quite beneficial in the long run. Have your therapist go as slowly as you need. You can build up to deeper applications by spreading out your experience over many appointments. Special note: Whether you're the patient or the caregiver of a chronically ill person, life's stress can increase to unbearable limits and can cause great mind/body/spirit imbalances. By relaxing your mind and body, massage helps to raise your health and vitality closer to a state of wellness. Perhaps, you will feel better than you could possibly imagine. Start gradually, book weekly, bi-weekly or monthly appointments. Consider keeping a record of your progress. Few doctors would advise you not to try massage therapy, but to be safe, it's a good idea

Q. I like to know the types of massages.. I like to know the types of massages for the people who suffer from fibromyalgia or with chronic illness.

A. Types of Massage, especially for people with Fibromyalgia and/or those who suffer with chronic illness: ‘Myofascial release’: Many times "regular" massage therapists can perform elementary myofascial release holds and moves, but the more specifically trained professionals in myofascial release therapy have received extended education and use stylized techniques and tools. They apply the type, degree and specific techniques that are best suited for each person's need. Myofascial Release therapy can be effective particularly for individuals with trigger or tender points and for those whose muscles tend to be knotty. ‘Swedish massage ‘: Any massage therapist should be able to do this kind of work. This technique is gentle, but done with enough applied pressure to comfortably work on sore spots.

More discussions about massage
References in periodicals archive ?
We can mention that, reported to the 27 countries of the European Union, the types of massage we have determined have been much more.
Men can also enjoy increased range of motion, which can improve athletic performance and help prevent injuries, with regular sports massage.
Swedish and deep-tissue massages are two of the 'big four' types of massage.
In a randomised controlled trial (RCT) in normal subjects, with light touch as the control group, massage for 45 minutes resulted in a large effect size decrease in arginine vasopressin responsible for controlling blood pressure, and a small effect size decrease in cortisol.
However, the practice of massage therapy in New Zealand is unregulated (Massage New Zealand 2009a) and there is a range of educational standards and levels, including non-accredited massage education providers offering massage therapy training.
Our only concern is with the effects of massage on the body and mind and how we individually relate to and cope with our stress-filled environment.
There can be restrictions with regard to the level of massage you can receive.
Medicine Hands Analyzes Appropriate Massage for Cancer Patients
The average annual income for a massage therapist who provides 15 hours of massage per week is $30,000 (including tips), according to AMTA, and more than half of them also earn income working in another profession due to the flexible nature of a massage therapy career.
In these cases, massage can treat the patient by working directly at the area affected and stimulate the muscle's self-healing capacity.
After a massage, many guests elect to have Shirodhara: A therapist pours a stream of warm, herbalized oil over the forehead, particularly the area between the eyebrows, delivering herbs and oils into the area surrounding the brain, stimulating the inner eye.
After attending the three-year program at College Boreal in Sudbury, Brousseau earned her 2,200 hours of the required education and hands-on work experience, wrote and passed her provincial exam, and is now registered through the College of Massage Therapists of Ontario.