manic-depressive psychosis


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Related to manic-depressive psychosis: manic phase of bipolar disorder, rapid cycling, Bipolar mood disorder, Bipolar affective disorder

bi·po·lar dis·or·der

an affective disorder characterized by the occurrence of alternating manic, hypomanic, or mixed episodes and with major depresive episodes. The DSM specifies the commonly observed patterns of bipolar I and bipolar II disorder and cyclothymia.
See also: manic episode, cyclothymia.

bipolar disorder

A mental condition characterised by episodic mania (euphoria) alternating with bouts of depression, which affects 1% of the general population. Bipolar disorder (BD) is the term used by the American Psychiatric Association, and is an umbrella term that encompasses a variety of clinical subtypes. The synonym manic-depressive disorder is still popular.

Epidemiology
BD first appears by age 30; half of patients have 2–3 episodes during life, each from 4–13 months in duration.
 
Clinical findings
Mood swings in BD may be dramatic and rapid, but more often are gradual; manic episodes are characterised by disordered thought, judgment and social behaviour; unwise business or financial decisions may be made when an individual is in a manic phase.

Management
Lithium prevents or attenuates manic and depressive episodes, maintained at 0.8–1.0 mmol/L; if the manic episode is unresponsive, electroconvulsive therapy may be effective.

Bipolar disorder, DSM-IV subtypes
Bipolar I disorder—characterised by an occurrence of one or more manic episodes or mixed episodes, and one or more major depressive episodes, and an absence of episodes better accounted for by schizoaffective, delusional or psychotic disorders.
 
Bipolar II disorder—recurrent major depressive episodes with hypomanic episodes, characterised by one or more major depressive episodes, one or more hypomanic episodes, and an absence of manic or mixed episodes or other episodes better accounted for by schizoaffective, delusional or psychotic disorders. Bipolar II patients suffer from greater psychomotor agitation, guilt, shame and suicidal ideation, attempts and success. 

Demographics
0.5% prevalence in the general population; a familial tendency; more common in women.
 
Mortality
10–15% die from suicide
 
Cyclothymia—a mild form of bipolar II disorder, consisting of recurrent mood disturbances between hypomania and dysthymic mood. A single episode of hypomania is sufficient to diagnose cyclothymia, but most people with it also have dysthymic periods. The diagnosis of cyclothymic disorder is not made if there is a history of mania or major depressive episode or mixed episode.

Bipolar disorder, NOS (Sub-threshold bipolar disorder)—bipolar disorder, NOS, is a waste-paper basket category used to indicate bipolar illness that does not fit into any of the above three formal DSM-IV bipolar diagnostic categories. The patient is so labeled if he or she manifests part of the bipolar spectrum symptoms (e.g. some manic and depressive symptoms) but does not meet the criteria for one of the above subtypes.

bi·po·lar dis·or·der

(bī-pō'lăr dis-ōr'dĕr)
An affective disorder characterized by the occurrence of alternating periods of euphoria (mania) and depression.
Synonym(s): manic-depressive psychosis.

manic-depressive psychosis

; bipolar disorder major, often remissive/recurrent mental illness, characterized by severe mood changes

bi·po·lar dis·or·der

(bī-pō'lăr dis-ōr'dĕr)
Affective disorder characterized by occurrence of alternating manic, hypomanic, or mixed episodes and with major depresive episodes.