CHS catlyze the reaction of malonyl-coA
and coumaroyl-coA to chalcone, and is the first enzyme that leads to the synthesis of flavonoids.
Other intermediary metabolites of fatty acid metabolism such as coenzyme-A (CoA) and its derivatives malonyl-CoA
and acetyl-CoA which play an important role in cardiac energy metabolism pathways are involved in altered fatty acid oxidation seen in heart failure.
This induces an increased capacity for FAO that could be due to a decreased concentration of malonyl-CoA
, attenuating the inhibition of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT1) that catalyzes the entry of FAs in mitochondria, a rate-limiting enzyme of FAO (Assifi et al.
The AMPK inhibits the activity of ACC, the rate-limiting enzyme involved in the production of malonyl-CoA
used for fatty acyl-CoA biosynthesis, and causes a reduction in this reaction, which stimulates CPT1 and reduces the flux of substrates in the fatty acid anabolic pathway (Carling et al.
CPT1 activity is tightly controlled by its inhibitor, malonyl-CoA
(step 4), which is regulated by AMP-activated kinase (AMPK).
Furthermore, CPP and 5-CQA decreased the nuclear active form of SREBP-1, acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity, and cellular malonyl-CoA
During fasting, the malonyl-CoA
level decreases, and CPT I becomes uninhibited, then long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) oxidation and subsequent ketogenesis become enhanced.
4] The first step of fatty acid synthesis is the formation of malonyl-CoA
by condensation of acetyl-CoA and CO[sub.
reductase and propionyl-CoA synthetase are the key enzymes of the 3-hydroxypropianate cycle, which is operative in Chloroflexus (Ishii et al.
Liao and Dipple traced those effects to lower levels of a fat metabolite called malonyl-CoA
and an additional fat oxidation pathway.
3] to ADP, orthophosphate and malonyl-CoA
, catalysed by the enzyme acetyl-CoA carboxylase (E.
coli by increasing the intracellular pool of malonyl-CoA
through various metabolic and protein engineering approaches.