and loss of appetite in animals are initial symptoms of gastrointestinal (GI) diseases [5,6], suggesting that the GI tract plays a significant role in the development of salmonellosis.
44) Bile, which normally is recycled through enterohepatic recirculation, may be lost to feces if intestinal function is impaired by atrophy, epithelial damage due to petroleum exposure, or maldigestion
5 pounds at intake) suffered from complications of maldigestion
, malabsorption, anemia, and hypoglycemia.
This results in the inability to digest food properly or maldigestion
A high incidence of abdominal pain in some patients has been attributed to maldigestion
as well as high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (Murray et al.
occurs when digestive enzymes are lacking to help break complex food components into absorbable nutrients within the gastrointestinal tract.
Moreover, consumption of alcohol leads to malabsorption and maldigestion
of food .
Premucosal causes lead to maldigestion
while mucosal and postmucosal conditions are associated with actual malabsorption.
We were also limited by our inability to confirm the presence of lactose maldigestion
in our patients at presentation.
The prevalence of primary lactose maldigestion
is 3-5% in Scandinavia, 17% in Finland, 5-15% in Great Britain, 15% in Germany, 15-20% in Austria, 17% in northern France, 65% in southern France, 20-70% in Italy, 55% in the Balkans, 70-90% in Africa (Exceptions: Bedouins, 25%; Tuareg, 13%; Fulani, 22%), 80% in Central Asia, 90-100% in Eastern Asia, 30% in northern India, 70% in southern India, 15% in North American whites, 80% in North American blacks, 53% in North American Hispanics, and 65-75% in South America.
This results in inability empty to their digestive tract leading to crop stasis, weight loss, proventricular, ventricular or intestinal maldigestion
and causing secondary infections (Bouette and Taylor, 2004).
Kefir improves iactose digestion and toierance in aduits with iactose maldigestion