Anatomical, morphological and volumetric analysis: A review of 759 cases of testicular maldescent
For some participants, biomonitoring was conducted a long time after the relevant prenatal exposure window for testicular maldescent
The 2 most common anomalies associated with polyorchidism are maldescent
(40%) of either the supernumerary testis or the ipsilateral (more normal) testis and indirect inguinal hernia (30%).
Maldescent during early embryologic development may also leave aberrant thyroid and parathyroid tissues within a normally placed mediastinal thymus.
Ectopic thymus from congenital maldescent generally remains dormant and is often found incidentally during thyroid surgery, as in our case.
The accompanying photomicrograph of thymus adjacent to thyroid and parathyroid glands reminds pathologists of the infrequent occurrence of ectopic thymic tissue caused by maldescent during early embryologic development.
A boy with short AGI has, on average, an AGI that is 18% shorter than expected based on his age and weight as well as an increased likelihood of testicular maldescent
, small and indistinct scrotum, and smaller penile size.
Reported worldwide incidence of undescended testis varies considerably as a result of differing study populations and diagnostic criteria (Toppari and Kaleva 1999), although introduction of a standardized definition of maldescent
(Scorer 1964), reproduced in large cohort studies (Berkowitz et al.