malate


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Related to malate: malic acid, malate synthase

malate

 [ma´lāt]
a salt of malic acid.

mal·ate

(mal'āt),
A salt or ester of malic acid.

malate

/ma·late/ (ma´lāt) any salt of malic acid.

mal·ate

(mal'āt)
A salt or ester of malic acid.
Malic acidclick for a larger image
Fig. 215 Malic acid . Molecular structure.

malic acid

or

malate

a four-carbon organic acid which is an intermediate step in the KREBS CYCLE, formed by the HYDROLYSIS of fumaric acid (see Fig. 215 ). Malic acid is also important in C4 PLANTS (such as sugar cane), in which carbon is ‘captured’ from CO2 to form malic acid and other C4 acids in MESOPHYLL cells, before being transferred to the CALVIN CYCLE taking place in the CHLOROPLASTS of special cells nearby. see KRANZ ANATOMY.

malate

a salt of malic acid.

malate-aspartate shuttle
system for the transfer of reducing equivalents as NADH and H+ between the site of generation in glycolysis in the cytosol and the site of oxidation in the electron transport chain for production of ATP in the mitochondria. Reducing equivalents are transported into the mitochondria as malate, using oxaloacetate as the carbon carrier. The oxaloacetate is generated from transamination of aspartate. Oxaloacetate does not have a mitochondrial transport protein.
malate dehydrogenase, NAD-linked malate dehydrogenase
an enzyme found in the mitochondria (as part of the TCA cycle) or cytosol that participates in the reversible conversion of malate to oxaloacetate.
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Fumarate and malate are four carbon intermediates (dicarboxylic acid) in the propionate pathway in which they are reduced to succinate.
Furthermore, a 71% decrease in complex I-dependent oxygen consumption was also observed with glutamate + malate as substrates (Oxygraph, Hansatech Instruments) (2).