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Malaria is a serious infectious disease spread by certain mosquitoes. It is most common in tropical climates. It is characterized by recurrent symptoms of chills, fever, and an enlarged spleen. The disease can be treated with medication, but it often recurs. Malaria is endemic (occurs frequently in a particular locality) in many third world countries. Isolated, small outbreaks sometimes occur within the boundaries of the United States.


Malaria is a growing problem in the United States. Although only about 1400 new cases were reported in the United States and its territories in 2000, many involved returning travelers. In addition, locally transmitted malaria has occurred in California, Florida, Texas, Michigan, New Jersey, and New York City. While malaria can be transmitted in blood, the American blood supply is not screened for malaria. Widespread malarial epidemics are far less likely to occur in the United States, but small localized epidemics could return to the Western world. As of late 2002, primary care physicians are being advised to screen returning travelers with fever for malaria, and a team of public health doctors in Minnesota is recommending screening immigrants, refugees, and international adoptees for the disease—particularly those from high-risk areas.
The picture is far more bleak, however, outside the territorial boundaries of the United States. A recent government panel warned that disaster looms over Africa from the disease. Malaria infects between 300 and 500 million people every year in Africa, India, southeast Asia, the Middle East, Oceania, and Central and South America. A 2002 report stated that malaria kills 2.7 million people each year, more than 75 percent of them African children under the age of five. It is predicted that within five years, malaria will kill about as many people as does AIDS. As many as half a billion people worldwide are left with chronic anemia due to malaria infection. In some parts of Africa, people battle up to 40 or more separate episodes of malaria in their lifetimes. The spread of malaria is becoming even more serious as the parasites that cause malaria develop resistance to the drugs used to treat the condition. In late 2002, a group of public health researchers in Thailand reported that a combination treatment regimen involving two drugs known as dihydroartemisinin and azithromycin shows promise in treating multidrug-resistant malaria in southeast Asia.

Causes and symptoms

Human malaria is caused by four different species of a parasite belonging to genus Plasmodium: Plasmodium falciparum (the most deadly), Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae, and Plasmodium ovale. The last two are fairly uncommon. Many animals can get malaria, but human malaria does not spread to animals. In turn, animal malaria does not spread to humans.
A person gets malaria when bitten by a female mosquito who is looking for a blood meal and is infected with the malaria parasite. The parasites enter the blood stream and travel to the liver, where they multiply. When they re-emerge into the blood, symptoms appear. By the time a patient shows symptoms, the parasites have reproduced very rapidly, clogging blood vessels and rupturing blood cells.
Malaria cannot be casually transmitted directly from one person to another. Instead, a mosquito bites an infected person and then passes the infection on to the next human it bites. It is also possible to spread malaria via contaminated needles or in blood transfusions. This is why all blood donors are carefully screened with questionnaires for possible exposure to malaria.
It is possible to contract malaria in non-endemic areas, although such cases are rare. Nevertheless, at least 89 cases of so-called airport malaria, in which travelers contract malaria while passing through crowded airport terminals, have been identified since 1969.
The amount of time between the mosquito bite and the appearance of symptoms varies, depending on the strain of parasite involved. The incubation period is usually between 8 and 12 days for falciparum malaria, but it can be as long as a month for the other types. Symptoms from some strains of P. vivax may not appear until 8-10 months after the mosquito bite occurred.
The primary symptom of all types of malaria is the "malaria ague" (chills and fever). In most cases, the fever has three stages, beginning with uncontrollable shivering for an hour or two, followed by a rapid spike in temperature (as high as 106°F), which lasts three to six hours. Then, just as suddenly, the patient begins to sweat profusely, which will quickly bring down the fever. Other symptoms may include fatigue, severe headache, or nausea and vomiting. As the sweating subsides, the patient typically feels exhausted and falls asleep. In many cases, this cycle of chills, fever, and sweating occurs every other day, or every third day, and may last for between a week and a month. Those with the chronic form of malaria may have a relapse as long as 50 years after the initial infection.
Falciparum malaria is far more severe than other types of malaria because the parasite attacks all red blood cells, not just the young or old cells, as do other types. It causes the red blood cells to become very "sticky." A patient with this type of malaria can die within hours of the first symptoms. The fever is prolonged. So many red blood cells are destroyed that they block the blood vessels in vital organs (especially the kidneys), and the spleen becomes enlarged. There may be brain damage, leading to coma and convulsions. The kidneys and liver may fail.
Malaria in pregnancy can lead to premature delivery, miscarriage, or stillbirth.
Certain kinds of mosquitoes (called anopheles) can pick up the parasite by biting an infected human. (The more common kinds of mosquitoes in the United States do not transmit the infection.) This is true for as long as that human has parasites in his/her blood. Since strains of malaria do not protect against each other, it is possible to be reinfected with the parasites again and again. It is also possible to develop a chronic infection without developing an effective immune response.


Malaria is diagnosed by examining blood under a microscope. The parasite can be seen in the blood smears on a slide. These blood smears may need to be repeated over a 72-hour period in order to make a diagnosis. Antibody tests are not usually helpful because many people developed antibodies from past infections, and the tests may not be readily available. A new laser test to detect the presence of malaria parasites in the blood was developed in 2002, but is still under clinical study.
Two new techniques to speed the laboratory diagnosis of malaria show promise as of late 2002. The first is acridine orange (AO), a staining agent that works much faster (3-10 min) than the traditional Giemsa stain (45-60 min) in making the malaria parasites visible under a microscope. The second is a bioassay technique that measures the amount of a substance called histadine-rich protein II (HRP2) in the patient's blood. It allows for a very accurate estimation of parasite development. A dip strip that tests for the presence of HRP2 in blood samples appears to be more accurate in diagnosing malaria than standard microscopic analysis.
Anyone who becomes ill with chills and fever after being in an area where malaria exists must see a doctor and mention their recent travel to endemic areas. A person with the above symptoms who has been in a high-risk area should insist on a blood test for malaria. The doctor may believe the symptoms are just the common flu virus. Malaria is often misdiagnosed by North American doctors who are not used to seeing the disease. Delaying treatment of falciparum malaria can be fatal.


Falciparum malaria is a medical emergency that must be treated in the hospital. The type of drugs, the method of giving them, and the length of the treatment depend on where the malaria was contracted and how sick the patient is.
For all strains except falciparum, the treatment for malaria is usually chloroquine (Aralen) by mouth for three days. Those falciparum strains suspected to be resistant to chloroquine are usually treated with a combination of quinine and tetracycline. In countries where quinine resistance is developing, other treatments may include clindamycin (Cleocin), mefloquin (Lariam), or sulfadoxone/pyrimethamine (Fansidar). Most patients receive an antibiotic for seven days. Those who are very ill may need intensive care and intravenous (IV) malaria treatment for the first three days.
Anyone who acquired falciparum malaria in the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Central America west of the Panama Canal, the Middle East, or Egypt can still be cured with chloroquine. Almost all strains of falciparum malaria in Africa, South Africa, India, and southeast Asia are now resistant to chloroquine. In Thailand and Cambodia, there are strains of falciparum malaria that have some resistance to almost all known drugs.
A patient with falciparum malaria needs to be hospitalized and given antimalarial drugs in different
The life cycle of Plasmodium vivax, the parasite that causes malaria.
The life cycle of Plasmodium vivax, the parasite that causes malaria.
(Illustration by Hans & Cassady.)
combinations and doses depending on the resistance of the strain. The patient may need IV fluids, red blood cell transfusions, kidney dialysis, and assistance breathing.
A drug called primaquine may prevent relapses after recovery from P. vivax or P. ovale. These relapses are caused by a form of the parasite that remains in the liver and can reactivate months or years later.
Another new drug, halofantrine, is available abroad. While it is licensed in the United States, it is not marketed in this country and it is not recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta.

Alternative treatments

The Chinese herb qiinghaosu (the Western name is artemisinin) has been used in China and southeast Asia to fight severe malaria, and became available in Europe in 1994. Because this treatment often fails, it is usually combined with another antimalarial drug (mefloquine) to boost its effectiveness. It is not available in the United States and other parts of the developed world due to fears of its toxicity, in addition to licensing and other issues.
A Western herb called wormwood (Artemesia annua) that is taken as a daily dose can be effective against malaria. Protecting the liver with herbs like goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis), Chinese goldenthread (Coptis chinensis), and milk thistle (Silybum marianum) can be used as preventive treatment. Preventing mosquitoes from biting you while in the tropics is another possible way to avoid malaria.
As of late 2002, researchers are studying a traditional African herbal remedy against malaria. Extracts from Microglossa pyrifolia, a trailing shrub belonging to the daisy family (Asteraceae), show promise in treating drug-resistent strains of P. falciparum.


If treated in the early stages, malaria can be cured. Those who live in areas where malaria is epidemic, however, can contract the disease repeatedly, never fully recovering between bouts of acute infection.


Several researchers are currently working on a malarial vaccine, but the complex life cycle of the malaria parasite makes it difficult. A parasite has much more genetic material than a virus or bacterium. For this reason, a successful vaccine has not yet been developed.
Malaria is an especially difficult disease to prevent by vaccination because the parasite goes through several separate stages. One recent promising vaccine appears to have protected up to 60% of people exposed to malaria. This was evident during field trials for the drug that were conducted in South America and Africa. It is not yet commercially available.
The World Health Association (WHO) has been trying to eliminate malaria for the past 30 years by controlling mosquitoes. Their efforts were successful as long as the pesticide DDT killed mosquitoes and antimalarial drugs cured those who were infected. Today, however, the problem has returned a hundred-fold, especially in Africa. Because both the mosquito and parasite are now extremely resistant to the insecticides designed to kill them, governments are now trying to teach people to take antimalarial drugs as a preventive medicine and avoid getting bitten by mosquitoes.
A newer strategy as of late 2002 involves the development of genetically modified non-biting mosquitoes. A research team in Italy is studying the feasibility of this means of controlling malaria.
Travelers to high-risk areas should use insect repellant containing DEET for exposed skin. Because DEET is toxic in large amounts, children should not use a concentration higher than 35%. DEET should not be inhaled. It should not be rubbed onto the eye area, on any broken or irritated skin, or on children's hands. It should be thoroughly washed off after coming indoors.
Those who use the following preventive measures get fewer infections than those who do not:
  • Between dusk and dawn, remain indoors in well-screened areas.
  • Sleep inside pyrethrin or permethrin repellent-soaked mosquito nets.
  • Wear clothes over the entire body.
Anyone visiting endemic areas should take antimalarial drugs starting a day or two before they leave the United States. The drugs used are usually chloroquine or mefloquine. This treatment is continued through at least four weeks after leaving the endemic area. However, even those who take antimalarial drugs and are careful to avoid mosquito bites can still contract malaria.
International travelers are at risk for becoming infected. Most Americans who have acquired falciparum malaria were visiting sub-Saharan Africa; travelers in Asia and South America are less at risk. Travelers who stay in air conditioned hotels on tourist itineraries in urban or resort areas are at lower risk than backpackers, missionaries, and Peace Corps volunteers. Some people in western cities where malaria does not usually exist may acquire the infection from a mosquito carried onto a jet. This is called airport or runway malaria.

Key terms

Arteminisinins — A family of antimalarial products derived from an ancient Chinese herbal remedy. Two of the most popular varieties are artemether and artesunate, used mainly in southeast Asia in combination with mefloquine.
Chloroquine — An antimalarial drug that was first used in the 1940s, until the first evidence of quinine resistance appeared in the 1960s. It is now ineffective against falciparum malaria almost everywhere. However, because it is inexpensive, it is still the antimalarial drug most widely used in Africa. Native individuals with partial immunity may have better results with chloroquine than a traveler with no previous exposure.
Mefloquine — An antimalarial drug that was developed by the United States Army in the early 1980s. Today, malaria resistance to this drug has become a problem in some parts of Asia (especially Thailand and Cambodia).
An antimalarial drug that was developed by the United States Army in the early 1980s. Today, malaria resistance to this drug has become a problem in some parts of Asia (especially Thailand and Cambodia).
Quinine — One of the first treatments for malaria, quinine is a natural product made from the bark of the Cinchona tree. It was popular until being superseded by the development of chloroquine in the 1940s. In the wake of widespread chloroquine resistance, however, it has become popular again. Quinine, or its close relative quinidine, can be given intravenously to treat severe Falciparum malaria.
Sulfadoxone/pyrimethamine (Fansidar) — An antimalarial drug developed in the 1960s. It is the first drug tried in some parts of the world where chloroquine resistance is widespread. It has been associated with severe allergic reactions due to its sulfa component.



Beers, Mark H., MD, and Robert Berkow, MD, editors. "Extraintestinal Protozoa: Malaria." Section 13, Chapter 161. In The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck Research Laboratories, 2004.


Causer, Louise M, et al. "Malaria Surveillance—United States, 2000." Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report July 12, 2002: 9-15. Abstract.
Coluzzi, M., and C. Costantini. "An Alternative Focus in Strategic Research on Disease Vectors: The Potential of Genetically Modified Non-Biting Mosquitoes." Parassitologia 44 (December 2002): 131-135.
"Combination Approach Results in Significant Drop in Malaria Rates in Viet Nam." TB & Outbreaks Week Abstract (September 24, 2002): 17.
Devi, G., V. A. Indumathi, D. Sridharan, et al. "Evaluation of ParaHITf Strip Test for Diagnosis of Malarial Infection." Indian Journal of Medical Science 56 (October 2002): 489-494.
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Kohler, I., K. Jenett-Siems, C. Kraft, et al. "Herbal Remedies Traditionally Used Against Malaria in Ghana: Bioassay-Guided Fractionation of Microglossa pyrifolia (Asteraceae)." Zur Naturforschung 57 (November-December 2002): 1022-1027.
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Centers for Disease Control Malaria Hotline. (770) 332-4555.
Centers for Disease Control Travelers Hotline. (770) 332-4559.


Malaria Foundation Page.


a serious infectious, sometimes fatal disease caused by a protozoal infection, characterized by periodic chills and high fever. It is endemic to many warm regions of the world and is estimated to occur at the rate of 500 million cases each year worldwide. It is one of the world's major causes of death, causing about a million deaths a year, and the number is increasing. Drug resistance is a growing problem. Epidemics of malaria usually occur in areas where mosquitoes infected with the protozoal parasite are found in large numbers and there are persons not immune to malaria. Acute cases occur when nonimmune persons travel to regions where the disease is endemic. Called also paludism. adj., adj malar´ial.

A joint African-American-European project called the Multilateral Initiative on Malaria is attempting to increase coordination of research efforts. Some difficulties encountered in malaria control have been resistance of mosquitoes to insecticides, insufficient funding in some developing countries, development of strains of protozoa that are resistant to antimalarial drugs, and the fact that malaria in monkeys can be transmitted to humans. As a result, recent efforts have been toward malaria control rather than eradication.
Cause. Malaria is caused by the protozoan parasite Plasmodium, which is carried by mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles. When the mosquito bites an infected person, it sucks in the parasites residing in the person's blood. In the mosquito the plasmodia multiply and travel to the salivary glands, from which they are transmitted to the bloodstream of the next person the mosquito bites. Inside the human host they first enter hepatic parenchymal cells and later are released to enter the bloodstream, where they penetrate the erythrocytes. There they mature, reproduce, and at complete maturity burst out of the blood cell. The life cycle varies according to the species of Plasmodium. For P. vivax it is 48 hours, for P. malariae 72 hours, and for P. falciparum 36 to 48 hours.
Symptoms. There are usually no symptoms until several cycles have been completed. Then there is a simultaneous rupturing of erythrocytes by the entire brood, causing the characteristic chills followed in a few hours by fever. The temperature may rise to 40° to 40.5°C (104° to 105°F). As it subsides, there is profuse perspiring. Other symptoms are headache, nausea, body pains and, after the attack, exhaustion. The symptoms last from 4 to 6 hours and recur at regular intervals, depending upon the parasitic species and its cycle. If the attack occurs every other day, the disease is called tertian malaria, and if it occurs at 3-day intervals it is called quartan malaria.

As the disease progresses, the attacks occur less frequently. Bouts of malaria may last from 1 to 4 weeks but usually about 2 weeks. Relapses are common, with attacks ceasing and recurring at irregular intervals for several years, especially if untreated. Malaria is not usually fatal; when it is, it is almost always caused by the falciparum species.
Treatment. For many years, quinine was the standard treatment for malaria, and it is still important in treatment of infection with drug-resistant strains of the protozoa. Other medications include malarone and mefloquine. Drug therapy will depend on a variety of factors including (but not limited to) availability of the medication.
Prevention. There is no effective inoculation against malaria, but antimalarial drugs may be given prophylactically to persons traveling to areas where the disease is widespread, or to pregnant women in areas in which the disease is endemic. Preventive measures are concentrated on destroying the mosquito by filling in swamps and other places containing stagnant water where mosquitoes breed, and by use of insecticides and natural biologic predators of mosquitoes.

Malaria information is available from the Fax Information Service of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (1-888-232-3299) or on the web site of the CDC at
Life cycle of malarial parasite.


A disease caused by the presence of the sporozoan Plasmodium in human or other vertebrate erythrocytes, usually transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus Anopheles that previously sucked blood from a person with malaria. Human infection begins with the exoerythrocytic cycle in liver parenchyma cells, followed by a series of erythrocytic schizogenous cycles repeated at regular intervals; production of gametocytes in other erythrocytes provides future gametes for another mosquito infection; characterized by episodic severe chills and high fever, prostration, occasionally fatal termination. See: tropic diseases.
See also: Plasmodium.
[It. malo (fem. mala), bad, + aria, air, referring to the old theory of the miasmatic origin of the disease]


/ma·lar·ia/ (mah-lar´e-ah) an infectious febrile disease endemic in many warm regions of the world, caused by protozoa of the genus Plasmodium, which are parasitic in red blood cells; it is transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes and marked by attacks of chills, fever, and sweating occurring at intervals that depend on the time required for development of a new generation of parasites in the body.malar´ial
falciparum malaria  the most serious form, due to Plasmodium falciparum, with severe constitutional symptoms and sometimes causing death.
ovale malaria  a mild form due to Plasmodium ovale, with recurring tertian febrile paroxysms and a tendency to end in spontaneous recovery.
quartan malaria  that in which the febrile paroxysms occur every 72 hours, or every fourth day counting the day of occurrence as the first day of each cycle; due to Plasmodium malariae.
quotidian malaria  vivax malaria in which the febrile paroxysms occur daily.
tertian malaria  vivax malaria in which the febrile paroxysms occur every 42 to 47 hours, or every third day counting the day of occurrence as the first day of the cycle.
vivax malaria  that due to Plasmodium vivax, in which the febrile paroxysms commonly occur every other day (tertian m.), but may occur daily (quotidian m.), if there are two broods of parasites segmenting on alternate days.


1. An infectious disease characterized by cycles of chills, fever, and sweating, caused by a protozoan of the genus Plasmodium in red blood cells, which is transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected female anopheles mosquito.
2. Archaic Bad or foul air; miasma.

ma·lar′i·al, ma·lar′i·an, ma·lar′i·ous adj.


Etymology: It, mal, bad, aria, air
a severe infectious illness caused by one or more of at least four species of the protozoan genus Plasmodium. The disease is transmitted from human to human by a bite from an infected Anopheles mosquito. Malarial infection can also be spread by blood transfusion from an infected patient or by the use of a contaminated or an infected hypodermic needle. Although the endemic disease is limited largely to tropical areas of South and Central America, Africa, and Asia, a number of new cases are introduced into the United States by refugees, military personnel, and travelers returning from malarial areas. See also double quartan fever.
observations Malaria is characterized by chills and fever, anemia, an enlarged spleen, myalgia, arthralgia, weakness, and vomiting. Splenomegaly, anemia, thrombocytopenia, hypoglycemia, pulmonary or renal dysfunction, and neurosis may also occur. P. falciparum, P. ovale, or P. vivax parasites penetrate the erythrocytes of the human host, where they mature, reproduce, and burst out periodically. Malarial paroxysms occur at regular intervals, coinciding with the development of a new generation of parasites in the body. Because the life cycle of the infecting parasite varies according to species, the clinical patterns of chills and fever vary, as do the course and severity of the disease. Bouts of malaria usually last from 1 to 4 weeks, with attacks occurring less frequently as the disease progresses. Relapse is common, and the disease can persist for years.
interventions Malaria prophylaxis involves the administration of chloroquine, tetracycline, doxycycline, or mefloquine. Treatment for active malaria includes the administration of chloroquine, quinine, tetracycline, clindamycin, doxycycline, mefloquine, primaquine, sulfonamides, or pyrimethamine. See also antimalarial, biduotertian fever, blackwater fever, falciparum malaria, quartan malaria, tertian malaria. malarial, adj.


Human infection with haemosporidian protozoa of genus Plasmodium, transmitted by bites from female anophiline mosquitoes. Malaria is classically accompanied by fever; it afflicts 200–300 million people of the 2 billion exposed, and kills 2 million/year. It is caused by four genera of Plasmodium: P vivax is most common; P falciparum (malignant tertian malaria) has the greatest genetic plasticity, greatest morbidity and appears to be of avian origin; P malariae and P ovale are less common and have a lower morbidity.

Anopheles mosquito; eradication by DDT spraying to eliminate vector is impossible; chemoprophylaxis of an entire population is impractical.


A disease caused by the presence of the sporozoan Plasmodium in the erythrocyte phase, usually transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus Anopheles. Human infection begins with the exoerythrocytic cycle in liver parenchyma cells, followed by a series of erythrocytic schizogenous cycles repeated at regular intervals; production of gametocytes in other red blood cells provides future gametes for another mosquito infection; characterized by episodic severe chills and high fever, prostration, and occasionally death or immunologically mediated sequelae.
See also: Plasmodium, tropical diseases
Synonym(s): swamp fever (2) .


One of a number of infections that cause recurrent fevers and are responsible for at least a million deaths each year throughout the world. Malaria is caused by one of several different species of single-celled parasites (protozoa) of the genus Plasmodium . Plasmodium falciparum causes a 24 hour cycle, with bouts of fever, shaking, headache and general aches and pains occurring every day. The common Plasmodium vivax , and the Plasmodium ovale have a 48 hour cycle and Plasmodium malariae a 72 hour cycle. Heavy infection can be very dangerous, especially with P. falciparum which can block the small blood vessels of the brain and cause grave illness. This parasite also often causes so much red blood cell destruction that the released haemoglobin colours the urine dark red or black, giving the name ‘blackwater fever’. The disease is transmitted from person to person by certain species of Anopheles mosquito which breed in stagnant water. The parasites undergo breeding cycles in the blood but can also settle in the liver and undergo breeding cycles there, occasionally breaking out into the blood. Because of the liver cycle, people who have had malaria and have been inadequately treated may appear to have fully recovered, but may develop severe attacks months or years later. Treatment is with the antimalarial drugs. These include AMODIAQUINE, CHLOROQUINE, MEFLOQUINE, PROGUANIL and QUININE. From the Italian mala , bad and aria , air.


a worldwide disease, the major cause of death and ill-health in the tropics. see MALARIA PARASITE.Various forms of malaria exist, recognized by the interval between fever attacks, from three days to a few hours. Preventative and curative treatment is possible, using drugs such as chloroquine.


n illness caused by infected female Anopheles mosquito (which harbors the protozoan parasite Plasmodium) bite. Studying the treatment of this illness with cinchona bark sparked Hahnemann to consider “like curing like,” which became the fundamental tenet of homeopathy. Also called
marsh fever.


Disease caused by the sporozoan Plasmodium, usually transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus Anopheles that previously sucked blood from a person with malaria.


n a serious infectious illness caused by one or more of at least four species of the protozoan genus
Plasmodium, characterized by chills, fever, anemia, an enlarged spleen, and a tendency to recur. The disease is transmitted from human to human by a bite from an infected
Anopheles mosquito.

Patient discussion about malaria

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References in periodicals archive ?
To elucidate the species of malaria infecting our patient, we determined the SSU rRNA gene by using similar methods as described by others (9), except that ExTaq DNA polymerase (Takara, Japan), pGEM-T vector (Promega, USA), and Escherichia coli strain JM109 were used.
The prevalence of naturally acquired primate malaria in humans can be underestimated from examination of blood films.
However, fever pattern per se may not be a precise indicator for differentiating malaria caused by P.
knowlesi could contribute to the reemergence of simian malaria in Thailand and southeast Asia, where its vectors, Anopheles leucosphyrus group, are abundant (15).
The evolution of primate malaria parasites based on the gene encoding cytochrome b from the linear mitochondrial genome.
Malaria zoonosis in relation to malaria eradication.
The databases used for the present analysis include 22 years of records from a local malaria reference center in Montreal, Canada (the McGill University Centre for Tropical Diseases [TDC]) and up to 13 years of quality assurance and notifiable disease surveillance databases of the provincial and federal governments of Canada, France, India, Switzerland, the United States, and the United Kingdom.
Provincial reportable disease databases have included, in the past 10 years, patient characteristics such as age, sex, and malaria species, but not the likely country of acquisition.
International malaria surveillance data (1990-2002) were acquired from the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for South East Asia (Rakish Mani Rastogi, pers.
Overall, 553 clinical cases of malaria were seen at TDC from 1981 to 2002, with some fluctuation over time but an overall gradual increase (Figure 1).
A review of the Federal Health Canada databases for the incidence of malaria in Canada, from 1990 through 2002, documents a range from 364 to 1,029 cases per year, with an average of 538 cases per year during the period (or an average of [approximately equal to] 1.
A similar pattern of malaria incidence was observed in males and females.