malakoplakia


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mal·a·co·pla·ki·a

, malakoplakia (mal'ă-kō-plā'kē-ă, mal'a-kō-plā'kē-a),
Rare lesion in the mucosa of the urinary bladder and other organs, more frequent in women, characterized by numerous mottled yellow and gray soft plaques and nodules that consist of numerous macrophages and calcospherites (Michaelis-Guttmann bodies) that may form around intracellular bacteria, usually Escherichia coli.
[malaco- + G. plax, plate, plaque]

malakoplakia

A rare (less than 500 cases in the world literature) granulomatous lesion characterised by soft, yellow, elevated and friable 3–4 cm mucosal plaques of the genitourinary tract (bladder, renal pelvis, ureter, uterus, broad ligament, endometrium, testes, epididymis, prostate), with female:male ratio of 2.3:1 and, rarely, retroperitoneum, colon, stomach, appendix, lymph nodes, lungs, bone, skin. It is more common in immunosuppressed transplant recipients, a complication of recurrent infection, and attributed to defective phagocytosis. It may be associated with colorectal carcinoma.

Management
Long-term antibiotics, ascorbic acid, cholinergics; if recalcitrant, excision.

malakoplakia

malakos, Greek, soft plaque A lesion characterized by soft, yellow, elevated and friable 3-4 cm mucosal plaques of the GU tract–bladder, renal pelvis, ureter, uterus, broad ligament, endometrium, testes, epididymis, prostate and rarely, retroperitoneum, colon, stomach, appendix, lymph nodes, lungs, bone, skin; more common in immunosuppressed transplant recipients Treatment Long-term antibiotics, ascorbic acid, cholinergics; if recalcitrant, excision
References in periodicals archive ?
Malakoplakia is a rare condition (fewer than 500 cases in the United States as of 2007),32 but this well-characterized inflammatory disease has been well described since it was first mentioned in 1902 by Michaelis and Gutmann.
Malakoplakia is composed of sheets of oval histiocytes with abundant granular eosinophilic cytoplasm (von Hansemann histiocytes) that contain basophilic, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive, diastase-resistant inclusions, and calcified Michaelis-Gutmann bodies (Figure 6).
The pathogenesis of malakoplakia is not completely understood, but evidence (34-36) supports the hypothesis that immunosuppression associated with defective phagolysosomal digestion of bacteria is necessary.
To review the literature of reported sites of malakoplakia outside the urinary tract and their variable clinical presentations, and to discuss the main diagnostic features and differential diagnoses of malakoplakia.
Misinterpreting large, rapidly growing nodules of malakoplakia as tumor might lead to overstaging.
Malakoplakia (from the Greek malacos, soft, and placos, plaques) is a rare granulomatous disease that occurs commonly in the urinary tract.
Malakoplakia was first reported and is most commonly seen in the bladder.
Malakoplakia is usually associated with Klebsiella and Escherichia coli, although gram-negative and gram-positive cocci and acid-fast bacilli have also been identified.
27] Because of the presence of foamy histiocytes, malakoplakia should be considered in the differential diagnosis of xanthogranulomatous inflammation.
Malakoplakia is an uncommon condition characterized by an infiltrate of large granular eosinophilic macrophages containing unique concentrically laminated siderocalcific structures called Michaelis-Gutmann (MG) bodies.
Malakoplakia was first described by Michaelis and Gutmann[5] in 1902 and elaborated on in 1903 by von Hansemann,[6] who coined the term "malakoplakia," derived from the Greek malakos (soft) and plakos (plaque).