THS exposes people to mixtures of chemical compounds in gas phase and particulate phase similar to those contained in mainstream smoke
and SHS, as well as to additional products of surface reactions involving tobacco smoke constituents.
This type of smoke contains more toxins and nicotine than mainstream smoke
Nonsmokers take in both so-called mainstream smoke, which passes through the cigarette filter, after the smoker exhales it, and side-stream smoke, which goes directly from the lit cigarette into the air.
According to the American Lung Association, side-stream smoke contains more tar, nicotine and carbon monoxide than mainstream smoke.
Partly because ETS consists of the same carcinogenic chemicals found in mainstream smoke
(inhaled by the smoker), the report concludes that ETS can itself be classified by the EPA as a "Group A" carcinogen along with arsenic, asbestos, benzene and radon.
As expected, the mainstream smoke
-- the portion inhaled by the smoker -- collected from low-tar cigarettes induced 20 to 30 percent fewer mutations per mg of pollutants in the test system's growing bacteria than did mainstream smoke
from the high-tar brand.
This smoke, which does not pass through a filter, is burdened with twice the tar and nicotine, 50 times the ammonia and substantially more cancer-causing substances, like nitrosamines, than mainstream smoke
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, "tar", and nicotine in the mainstream smoke
aerosol of the narghile water pipe.
Our analyses show there is significant toxicity in harm reduction products, and our data show that reduction of carcinogens in harm reduction mainstream smoke
does not necessarily reduce the toxicity of unfiltered sidestream smoke," said Prue Talbot, the director of UC Riverside's Stem Cell Center.
The particles of second-hand smoke are smaller than those of mainstream smoke
Research as early as 1975 showed that vapor phase nicotine can account for 12% or more of the nicotine delivered in the mainstream smoke
This type of smoke contains much higher concentrations of toxins and nicotine than mainstream smoke