magnetic field therapy


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal, Encyclopedia.

Magnetic Field Therapy

 

Definition

Magnetic therapy is the use of magnets to relieve pain in various areas of the body.

Purpose

Some of the benefits that magnetic therapy claims to provide include:
  • pain relief
  • reduction of swelling
  • improved tissue alkalinization
  • more restful sleep
  • increased tissue oxygenation
  • relief of stress
  • increased levels of cellular oxygen
  • improved blood circulation
  • anti-infective activity

Description

Origins

Magnetic therapy dates as far back as the ancient Egyptians. Magnets have long been believed to have healing powers associated with muscle pain and stiffness. Chinese healers as early as 200 B.C. were said to use magnetic lodestones on the body to correct unhealthy imbalances in the flow of qi, or energy. The ancient Chinese medical text known as The Yellow Emperor's Canon of Internal Medicine describes this procedure. The Vedas, or ancient Hindu scriptures, also mention the treatment of diseases with lodestones. The word "lodestone" or leading stone, came from the use of these stones as compasses. The word "magnet" probably stems from the Greek Magnes lithos, or "stone from Magnesia," a region of Greece rich in magnetic stones. The Greek phrase later became magneta in Latin.
Sir William Gilbert's 1600 treatise, De Magnete, was the first scholarly attempt to explain the nature of magnetism and how it differed from the attractive force of static electricity. Gilbert allegedly used magnets to relieve the arthritic pains of Queen Elizabeth I. Contemporary American interest in magnetic therapy began in the 1990s, as several professional golfers and football players offered testimony that the devices seemed to cure their nagging aches and injuries.
Many centuries ago, the earth was surrounded by a much stronger magnetic field than it is today. Over the past 155 years, scientists have been studying the decline of this magnetic field and the effects it has had on human health. When the first cosmonauts and astronauts were going into space, physicians noted that they experienced bone calcium loss and muscle cramps when they were out of the Earth's magnetic field for any extended period of time. After this discovery was made, artificial magnetic fields were placed in the space capsules.
There are two theories that are used to explain magnetic therapy. One theory maintains that magnets produce a slight electrical current. When magnets are applied to a painful area of the body, the nerves in that area are stimulated, thus releasing the body's natural painkillers. The other theory maintains that when magnets are applied to a painful area of the body, all the cells in that area react to increase blood circulation, ion exchange, and oxygen flow to the area. Magnetic fields attract and repel charged particles in the bloodstream, increasing blood flow and producing heat. Increased oxygen in the tissues and blood stream is thought to make a considerable difference in the speed of healing.

Preparations

There are no special preparations for using magnetic therapy other than purchasing a product that is specific for the painful area being treated. Products available in a range of prices include necklaces and bracelets; knee, back, shoulder and wrist braces; mattress pads; gloves; shoe inserts; and more.

Precautions

The primary precaution involved with magnetic therapy is to recognize the expense of this therapy. Magnets have become big business; they can be found in mail-order catalogs and stores ranging from upscale department stores to specialty stores. As is the case with many popular self-administered therapies, many far-fetched claims are being made about the effectiveness of magnetic therapy. Consumers should adopt a "let the buyer beware" approach to magnetic therapy. Persons who are interested in this form of treatment should try out a small, inexpensive item to see if it works for them before investing in the more expensive products.

Side effects

There are very few side effects from using magnetic therapy. Generally, patients using this therapy find that it either works for them or it does not. Patients using transcranial magnetic stimulation for the treatment of depression reported mild headache as their only side effect.

Research and general acceptance

Magnetic therapy is becoming more and more widely accepted as an alternative method of pain relief. Since the late 1950s, hundreds of studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of magnetic therapy. In 1997, a group of physicians at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas studied the use of magnetic therapy in 50 patients who had developed polio earlier in life. These patients had muscle and joint pain that standard treatments failed to manage. In this study, 29 of the patients wore a magnet taped over a trouble spot, and 21 others wore a nonmagnetic device. Neither the researchers nor the patients were told which treatment they were receiving (magnetic or nonmagnetic). As is the case with most studies involving a placebo, some of the patients responded to the nonmagnetic therapy, but 75% of those using the magnetic therapy reported feeling much better.
In another study at New York Medical College in Valhalla, New York, a neurologist tested magnetic therapy on a group of 19 men and women complaining of moderate to severe burning, tingling, or numbness in their feet. Their problems were caused by diabetes or other conditions present such as alcoholism. This group of patients wore a magnetic insole inside one of their socks or shoes for 24 hours a day over a two-month period, except while bathing. They wore a nonmagnetic insert in their other sock or shoe. Then for two months they wore magnetic inserts on both feet. By the end of the study, nine out of ten of the diabetic patients reported relief, while only three of nine nondiabetic patients reported relief. The neurologist in charge of the study believes that this study opens the door to additional research into magnetic therapy for diabetic patients. He plans a larger follow-up study in the near future.
As of 2000, a federally funded study is underway at the University of Virginia. This study is evaluating the effectiveness of magnetic mattress pads in easing the muscle pain, stiffness and fatigue associated with fibromyalgia.
Magnetic therapy is also being studied in the treatment of depression in patients with bipolar disorder. A procedure called repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation has shown promise in treating this condition. In this particular study, patients with depression had a lower relapse rate than did those using electroconvulsive therapy. Unlike electroconvulsive therapy, patients using magnetic therapy did not suffer from seizures, memory lapses, or impaired thinking.

Resources

Periodicals

"Magnets for Pain Relief: Attractive but Unproven." Tufts University Health and Nutrition Letter 1999: 3.
Vallbona, C. "Evolution of Magnetic Therapy from Alternative to Traditional Medicine." Physical Medicine Rehabilitation Clinics of North America 1999:729-54.

Key terms

Fibromyalgia — A chronic syndrome characterized by fatigue, widespread muscular pain, and pain at specific points on the body.
Lodestone — A variety of magnetite that possesses magnetic polarity.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation — A procedure used to treat patients with depression.

magnetic field therapy

the placement of magnets directly on the skin, stimulating living cells and increasing blood flow by ionic currents created from polarities on the magnets. Trigger points for magnets are acupuncture points where the action of the magnets serves to activate the tendinomuscular system to readily and widely transmit electrical stimuli. Magnets also increase tissue oxygen perfusion by decreasing vascular resistance, decreasing nerve cell firing, and stimulating various cellular structures. Common physiological responses include vasodilation, analgesia, antiinflammatory action, spasmolytic activity, accelerated healing, and antiedema activity. In addition to the FDA-approved use of pulsed magnetic fields for the treatment of nonunion fractures, it has been tried for a large number of other conditions, usually self-administered by patients.

magnetic

having the properties of a magnet.

magnetic field therapy
a modality of alternative medicine using magnetic lines of force to stimulate healing, particularly musculoskeletal injuries. It may be used in combination with other modalities of treatment, most commonly acupuncture. Pulsed magnetic field therapy is produced by passing an electric current through a coil of wire. The frequencies commonly produced, 1 to 60 Hz, pass through the body without causing any thermal effect in tissues.
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
the patient is placed in a magnetic field and radiofrequency signals are transmitted and received by surrounding coils. A computer processes the information and constructs cross-sectional images which provide detailed information on soft tissues.
magnetic therapy
includes static magnets (magnets of 500 to 1500 gauss embedded in bandage applied to the injured part) and pulsed electromagnetic devices by which the frequency and the strength of the magnet can be varied.
References in periodicals archive ?
Because magnetic field therapy allows athletes to stay healthy with a minimum amount of time, administration, and expense (it can be used while the athlete is practicing or even competing), trainers and medical personnel would do well to investigate its potential use in their programs.
Since the experiences of pain and power are different manifestations of well-being, which evolve through an individual's mutual process with the environment, the individual's choice of strategies to change pain and power must take into account different environmental factors such as magnetic field therapy.
This study explored the potential of magnetic field therapy as a nursing intervention, a manifestation of the environmental energy field, within the context of this human-environment patterning process.
Davis and Rawls' (1974) theory of magnetic fields provided the rationale for the magnetic field therapy.
Magnetic field therapy uses magnetic fields to promote health.
Kim and Lee (1994) studied the relation between magnetic field therapy and pain in 23 individuals with primary dysmenorrhea who were randomly assigned to either a magnetic group ([n.
This empirical literature on magnetic field therapy and its relation to healing is not consistent.