mad cow disease


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Related to mad cow disease: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

encephalopathy

 [en-sef″ah-lop´ah-the]
any degenerative disease of the brain.
AIDS encephalopathy HIV encephalopathy.
anoxic encephalopathy hypoxic encephalopathy.
biliary encephalopathy (bilirubin encephalopathy) kernicterus.
bovine spongiform encephalopathy a prion disease of adult cattle in the British Isles with neurologic symptoms. It is transmitted by feed containing protein in the form of meat and bone meal derived from infected animals. The etiologic agent is also the cause of new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Called also mad cow disease.
boxer's encephalopathy (boxer's traumatic encephalopathy) a syndrome due to cumulative head blows absorbed in the boxing ring, characterized by slowing of mental function, occasional bouts of confusion, and scattered memory loss. It may progress to the more serious boxer's dementia. See also postconcussional syndrome.
dialysis encephalopathy a degenerative disease of the brain associated with longterm use of hemodialysis, marked by speech disorders and constant myoclonic jerks, progressing to global dementia.
hepatic encephalopathy a condition, usually occurring secondary to advanced liver disease, marked by disturbances of consciousness that may progress to deep coma (hepatic coma), psychiatric changes of varying degree, flapping tremor, and fetor hepaticus.
HIV encephalopathy (HIV-related encephalopathy) a progressive primary encephalopathy caused by infection with human immunodeficiency virus type I, manifested by a variety of cognitive, motor, and behavioral abnormalities. Called also AIDS encephalopathy.
hypernatremic encephalopathy a severe hemorrhagic encephalopathy induced by the hyperosmolarity accompanying hypernatremia and dehydration.
hypertensive encephalopathy a complex of cerebral phenomena such as headache, convulsions, and coma that occur in the course of malignant hypertension.
hypoxic encephalopathy encephalopathy caused by hypoxia from either decreased rate of blood flow or decreased oxygen content of arterial blood; mild cases cause temporary intellectual, visual, and motor disturbances, and severe cases can cause permanent brain damage within five minutes. Called also anoxic encephalopathy.
lead encephalopathy brain disease caused by lead poisoning.
mitochondrial encephalopathy encephalopathy associated with mitochondrial abnormalities, such as melas syndrome and merrf syndrome.
portal-systemic encephalopathy (portasystemic encephalopathy) hepatic encephalopathy.
progressive subcortical encephalopathy Schilder's disease.
subacute spongiform encephalopathy (transmissible spongiform encephalopathy) prion disease.
traumatic encephalopathy
Wernicke's encephalopathy a neurological disorder characterized by confusion, apathy, drowsiness, ataxia of gait, nystagmus, and ophthalmoplegia; it is due to thiamine deficiency, usually from chronic alcohol abuse. It is almost invariably accompanied by or followed by korsakoff's syndrome and frequently accompanied by other nutritional polyneuropathies. See also wernicke-korsakoff syndrome.

bo·vine spon·gi·form en·ceph·a·lop·a·thy (BSE),

a disease of cattle first reported in 1986 in Great Britain; characterized clinically by apprehensive behavior, hyperesthesia, and ataxia, and histologically by spongiform changes in the gray matter of the brain stem; caused by a prion, like spongiform encephalopathies of other animals (for example, scrapie) and human beings (Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease [vCJD]).
Synonym(s): mad cow disease

In the middle 1990s, an unusual number of cases of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) were reported in people under 30 years of age in Great Britain. These patients displayed typical clinical features but not the EEG changes characteristic of CJD, and autopsy specimens showed unusual amyloid plaques resembling those of kuru but not previously observed in CJD. This so-called variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) has been traced to consumption of beef products contaminated by central nervous system tissues of a cow infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow disease). An epizootic of this disease killed more than 150,000 cattle in Britain between 1986 and 1996. Since July 1989 the importation of cattle and cattle products from the U.K. has been banned by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The discovery late in 2003 of a single dairy cow infected with BSE in Washington state prompted a revision of screening procedures in the U.S. and a tightening of restrictions on the use of meat products as human food. WHO consultants have condemned the practice of feeding ruminant-derived meat-and-bone meal to cattle and urged the adoption of measures to ensure that no part of any animal that shows signs of a spongiform encephalopathy enters any human or animal food chain. Milk, dairy products, gelatin, and lard are considered safe. see also Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

mad cow disease

mad cow disease

bovine spongiform encephalopathy

A disease of cattle which is characterised by high-stepping or staggering gait, anxiety, increased sensitivity and kicking while being milked, and less commonly by frenzy and aggressiveness.

Epidemiology
BSE has a long incubation period of two to eight years, and affects cattle that are fed bone meal and protein products from infected cattle; the disease is transmitted to humans by eating food contaminated with infected brain, spinal cord or GI tract. The human form of BSE has been called new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and as of late 2009, 166 people in the UK had died of the disease.

Aetiology
Prions.

mad cow disease

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy, see there.

mad cow disease

colloquial term for BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY.

Creutzfeldt,

Hans Gerhard, German neuropsychiatrist, 1885-1964.
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease - a form of subacute spongiform encephalopathy caused by a transmissible agent that has not been completely defined. Synonym(s): Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease; mad cow disease; transmissible dementia
Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease - Synonym(s): Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

mad cow disease

References in periodicals archive ?
The ministry, which has yet to confirm that the cow had mad cow disease, said it is most likely that the cow was infected through animal-based feed.
So far, cattle with mad cow disease have turned up in Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Ireland, Italy, Liechtenstein Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, and Switzerland.
Polish officials feared the gelatin may have come from cows infected with mad cow disease.
The panel endorsed an expert task force recommendation in March that cattle slaughtered at 20 months of age or younger be excluded from tests for mad cow disease, saying even if young cattle are excluded from the test, ''a resultant increase in BSE risks in meats will be extremely low.
Canada, facing a potential economic blow from its first case of mad cow disease in a decade, quarantined two more cattle farms May 21 as it tried to trace the origin of the eight-year-old animal diagnosed with the disease.
The revelation that the farm ministry was aware of the danger of MBM a decade ago but took no decisive action to prevent the spread of mad cow disease is likely to generate even more criticism.
Abdulezel Dogani, Deputy Director of the Food and Veterinary Agency, stressed that the mad cow disease can be confirmed solely when the animal is killed and once it is confirmed, by all European and world standards, the meat cannot be sold either at home or abroad.
The approval came after the exemption threshold for testing domestic cattle for mad cow disease was raised Monday from 21 months to up to 30 months.
Seoul, April 29 (Xinhua) -- South Korea will send a group of government officials, scholars and civic activists to the United States to look into the latest outbreak of mad cow disease amid growing food safety concerns at home, the farm ministry here said Sunday.
There have been 19 cases of mad cow disease in Canada, all in cows.
Department of Agriculture is within its bounds to bar meatpackers from testing all slaughtered cattle for mad cow disease.
Though experts say it's highly unlikely, Clendening fears her daughteres could have contracted mad cow disease from eating the recalled meat at school.