macular hole


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macular hole

An ocular change caused by ageing, diabetes and degeneration resulting in shrinkage of the vitreous over the fovea, creating traction on the fovea and eventually a macular defect. In early stages, an epiretinal membrane compromises visual acuity, leading over time to metamorphopsia (lines on an Amsler grid appear wavy or crooked) and increasingly severe loss of vision.

Patients see anything from a fine, glistening membrane overlying the macula (cellophane maculopathy), to a thickened, whitish tissue that obscures underlying blood vessels. As it progresses, traction by the vitreous causes a puckering that appears as retinal folds radiating from the macula when viewed by fundoscopy.

macular hole

A tear or discontinuity in the central portion of the retina, resulting in central visual loss.

macular hole

A condition in which there is a partial or full thickness absence of the retina in the macular area. It may occur as a result of trauma, degeneration, old age, preretinal macular fibrosis or pathological myopia. It appears ophthalmoscopically as a round or oval, well defined, reddish spot at the macula. There is metamorphopsia, loss of visual acuity and a central scotoma. An operculum of retinal tissue may overlie the hole. The vitreous in front of the hole eventually condenses and separates from the retina. In partial macular hole a layer of photoreceptors may still be attached to the retinal pigment epithelium (lamellar hole), as in cystoid macular oedema. Treatment usually consists of reattaching the retina, if detached, and possibly vitrectomy. See preretinal macular fibrosis; confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope; retinal break; solar retinopathy; optical coherence tomography.
References in periodicals archive ?
To explore the presentation of high myopia without complications or myopic maculopathy, lacquer cracks, and posterior staphyloma that can change the choroidal morphology, any instances of amblyopia, eyes with a history of retinal detachment, scleral buckling, pars plana vitrectomy, photodynamic therapy, antivascular endothelial growth factor therapy, macular hole, epiretinal membrane, vitreomacular traction syndrome, foveoschisis, diabetes, any type of glaucoma, or posterior uveitis were excluded.
Those with macular hole at presentation underwent vitrectomy for macular hole were excluded.
Tests revealed he had a macular hole, and we had to act fast, otherwise, the retina itself might tear as the hole expanded," Dr Rao told Gulf News.
None of the eye developed sight threatening complications like retinal detachment or macular hole.
Contributed by ophthalmologists from Europe, the US, and Israel, the 19 chapters address the surgical and nonsurgical management of vitreoretinal disorders, including diabetic retinopathy; diabetic macular edema, with discussion of the use of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor drugs and diagnosis; proliferative diabetic retinopathy; the complications and management of diabetic vitrectomy; retinal venous occlusions; rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, including vitrectomy, scleral buckling materials, and pneumatic retinopexy; the use of prophylaxis for retinal detachment; retinal detachment due to giant tears or dialysis; macular hole surgery; vitrectomy for epiretinal membranes; Irvine-Gass syndrome; and endophthalmitis.
Arimura and colleagues (2006) correlated perceptual distortions that are associated with the development of a macular hole with scores on their metamorphopsia questionnaire.
More specifically, dedicated chapters cover corneal pathologies, age-related macular degeneration, pathologic myopia, macular hole, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma, among other conditions.
Miller specializes in the treatment of retinal detachment repair, macular hole repair and diabetic retinopathy.
She suffered commotioretinae (reduced vision caused by trauma) with damage to the retinal pigment epithelium (a layer of cells in the eye) and macular hole formation (the creation of a hole in the macula, which is part of the retina).
After my consultations with the doctor I was told I had a condition called macular hole which is in the retina.
My mother was recently diagnosed with a macular hole.