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Any of several parasitic trematode worms that infest the liver of humans and other mammals, especially Clonorchis sinensis and several species in the genus Opisthorchis, acquired from eating infected freshwater fish, and two species in the genus Fasciola, acquired from ingesting contaminated water or aquatic vegetation.
Etymology: AS, lifer + floc
a parasitic trematode belonging to the class Trematoda, with six genera that may infest the liver. The most important species affecting humans in industrialized countries is Clonorchis sinensis, which is usually acquired by eating freshwater fish containing the encysted larvae. The larvae are released in the duodenum, enter the common bile duct, and migrate to other bile ducts, the gallbladder, and pancreatic ducts. The liver fluke may survive for many years in the human biliary tree, releasing eggs into the feces. Infestations are most likely to result from ingestion of raw, dried, salted, or pickled freshwater fish and can be prevented by thorough cooking of such fish.
liver flukeOne of several types of flatworm (trematode) which can gain access to the liver by way of the bile duct and cause a feverish illness with liver tenderness and enlargement. The common form of liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica , is a parasite of sheep which produces eggs that are passed in the sheep faeces. The intermediate host is an aquatic snail from which further larvae are released to congregate on the leaves of water plants such as cress or water-chestnut. If these are eaten by humans, the infestation may be acquired. Diagnosis is by microscopic identification of the fluke eggs in the stools. ANTHELMINTIC drugs are used to kill the worms.
liver flukesee FLUKE.
1. the large, dark-red organ located in the cranial portion of the abdomen, just behind the diaphragm. Its functions include storage and filtration of blood; secretion of bile; detoxication of noxious substances; conversion of sugars into glycogen; synthesis and breakdown of fats and temporary storage of fatty acids; and synthesis of serum proteins such as certain of the alpha and beta globulins, albumin, which helps regulate blood volume, and fibrinogen and prothrombin, which are essential blood clotting factors. See also hepatic.
2. a rich red-brown coat color in dogs that resembles the color of the organ.
causes toxemia, possibly local signs of subacute abdominal pain, pain on percussion or palpation over the liver if peritoneal inflammation is present, when there may also be a positive paracentesis sample.
damage to the liver parenchyma causing some degree of hepatic insufficiency.
may be because of a diaphragmatic hernia with the liver protruding into the thoracic cavity. Usually accompanied by dyspnea.
dullness on percussion over the right rib cage, used to help in defining the size of the liver which must be grossly enlarged to register a recognizable change.
the result of diffuse damage to the liver, e.g. in hepatitis. There may be clinical signs including photosensitization, jaundice, hepatic encephalopathy in the form of the dummy syndrome, dullness and anorexia, or there may be subclinical disease detectable by clinicopathological tests, e.g. hypoglycemia, hypoproteinemia, hyperammonemia. All of the functions of the liver will be affected at the one time.
may be caused by neoplasia, congestion (as with heart failure), and infiltration by fat or inflammatory cells.
when there is acute, diffuse damage to the liver some of its enzymes are liberated into the blood, where they can be measured. An indication of the severity of the damage can be obtained in this way. Different enzymes are used in each animal species.
when liver function is inadequate to sustain life; the end-stage of liver dysfunction.
one affected with fatty infiltration.
fatty liver syndrome
see fat cow syndrome.
liver fluke disease
see hepatic fascioliasis.
summation of the functions of the liver.
liver function tests
biochemical tests capable of demonstrating that the liver's functions are, or are not, at full capacity. The sulfobromophthalein clearance test is the most commonly used in veterinary medicine.
inherited liver insufficiency
occurs in several breeds of sheep and is characterized by the appearance of photosensitive dermatitis when the lambs begin to eat green feed. There is an accumulation of phylloerythrin in the blood and other biochemical indications of insufficiency, but the liver is histologically normal. Called also inherited photosensitization.
damage to the hepatic parenchyma, possibly by massive trauma, but usually by an hepatic toxin. A common cause of hepatic insufficiency.
see liver dysfunction (above).
liver lobe torsion
see liver torsion (below).
see hepatic lipofuscinosis.
liver meridian points
acupuncture points along the liver meridian.
a disease characterized by multiple liver abscesses, usually containing Fusobacterium necrophorum and resulting from infection from a chemical rumenitis which originated from carbohydrate engorgement and lactic acid rumenitis.
substance used for the treatment of liver failure. The important ones are choline, methionine, betaine, lecithin, vitamin B12, selenium-vitamin E, essential phospholipids, glucose, fructose, vitamins E and B complex, and glucuronic acid.
see acute hepatic fascioliasis.
is usually the result of severe trauma to the abdomen. In most cases there is massive hemorrhage into the peritoneal cavity, acute hemorrhagic anemia and mucosal pallor. Abdominal paracentesis recovers whole blood.
is usually restricted to a single lobe. Causes severe abdominal pain and severe vomiting.