The various classes of antibacterial drug included in this report are beta-lactams, macrolides, aminoglycosides, phenicols, quinolones, folate antagonists, tetracyclines, and other miscellaneous agents, which include glycopeptides, nitroimidazoles, lincosamides
, lipopeptides, nicotinic acid derivatives, and polypeptide antibiotics.
Clindamycin, erythromycin, gentamicin, levofloxacin and oxacillin were chosen for the drug-interaction assay, since they belong to different classes of antimicrobial agents, respectively, lincosamides
, macrolides, aminoglycosides, quinolones and [beta]-lactams.
Molecular basis of resistance to macrolides, lincosamides
and streptogramins in Staphylococcus saprophyticus clinical isolates.
Most authors consider the lincosamides
to have a time-dependent dynamic where efficacy is related to maintaining plasma concentrations above the minimum inhibitory concentration of the pathogen for as much of the dosing interval as is possible, although that assumption seems to be based on only 2 in vitro studies.
Nonsense mutations in the lsa-like gene in Enterococcus faecalis isolates susceptible to lincosamides
and streptogramins A.
of cases of resistant Antimicrobial agent bacteria Penicillins (penicillin, ampicillin, amoxycillin, cloxacillin, co-amoxiclav, piperacillin-tazobactam) 72 Cephalosporins (cefazolin, cephaliexin, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime) 14 Co-trimoxazole (trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole) 9 Macrolides (erythromycin) 6 Tetracyclines (tetracycline) 2 Aminoglycosides (amikacin, gentamicin, rifampicin, tobramycin) 4 Lincosamides
(clindamycin) 4 Chloramphenicol 1 Total 112
Distribution of genes encoding resistance to macrolides, lincosamides
, and streptogamins among staphylococci.
(clindamycin): Covers some MRSA, but resistance is growing.
lactams, but also of tetracyclines, macrolides, lincosamides
, streptogramins, phenicols, and aminoglycosides.
The next describes classes of agents and includes chapters on beta-lactam antibiotics; peptide antibiotics; lincosamides
, pleuromutilins, and streptogramins; macrolides, azalides, and ketolides; aminoglycosides; tetracyclines and glycylcyclines; chloramphenicol, thiamphenicol, and florfenicol; sulfomanides, diaminopyrimidines, and their combinations; fluorquinolones; antifungal chemotherapy agents; and antiviral chemotherapy agents.
Where it is possible, the surveillance of the GABHS resistance to macrolides, lincosamides
, synergistins and ketolides should be done to update the efficacy of antimicrobial regimens for RPA.
The macrolides, lincosamides
, and streptogramins are three classes of antibiotics that are closely related in function but not structure.