The erm gene usually confers co-resistance to macrolides, lincosamides
, and streptogramins.
A separate in vitro study sponsored by Melinta against contemporary (2017) bacterial strains from acne patients that include isolates resistant to commonly used topical antibiotic treatment showed that 38 percent of samples isolated from skin swabs were multi-drug resistant to macrolides, such as erythromycin, lincosamides
, such as clindamycin, and tetracyclines.
But 100% resistance to fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides and macrolides was noted, while lincosamides
95) See NRDC Petition, supra note 80, at 3-4 (listing macrolides, lincosamides
, penicillins, streptogramins, tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, and sulfonamides).
aureus isolate(s) from each positive nasal swab were tested for susceptibility to the following 12 classes of antibiotics: aminoglycosides, beta-lactams, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, lincosamides
, macrolides, oxazolidinones, rifamycin, streptogramins, sulfonamide, nitrofuran, and tetracyclines (see Table S1).
Because they reduce the release of acetylcholine, the effect of the toxin is increased by aminoglicosides, cyclosporine, D-penicillamine, quinidine, succinylcholine, magnesium sulfate and lincosamides
, whereas aminoquinolones reduce its effect by blocking its cellular uptake.
The Cfr rRNA methyltransferase confers resistance to Phenicols, Lincosamides
, Oxazolidinones, Pleuromutilins, and Streptogramin A antibiotics.
Some of these genes are carriers of determinant genes to multiple antibiotics, besides the Macrolides, Lincosamides
, Streptogramins, Aminoglycosides and Tetracyclines.
Phenotype Resistance to Methicillin, Macrolides and Lincosamides
in Staphylococcus Aureus, Isolated in a Hospital in Valledupar, Colombia
The major intramammary antimicrobial treatments that have been used with different success rates to control bovine mastitis include beta-lactams such as natural G penicillins (sodium, potassium, procaine and benzathine), synthetic ones such as ampicillin, amoxicillin and anti-staphylococcus drugs (cloxacillin, oxacillin, nafcillin, meticillin); cephalosporins (Cefapirin, cefalonium, cephalothin, cefoperazone, ceftiofur, cefquinome); aminoglycosides such as dihydrostreptomycin, gentamicin and neomycin; aminocoumarins (novobiocin); fluoroquinolones (norfloxacin); tetracyclines (oxytetracycline); macrolides (erythromycin); lincosamides
such as lincomycin and pirlimycin; chloramphenicol, among others.
This gene mediates resistance to not only linezolid but also to phenicols, lincosamides
, pleuromutilins, and streptogramin A and macrolides3.
, Macrolides and pleuromutilins; Antimicrobial Therapy.