No longer can we take an isolated approach of trying to target and block one leukotoxin
at a time," says Torres, an associate professor at NYU Langone.
Additional candidates have been highlighted in the literature, including the leukotoxin
LukED which targets the human CCR5 receptor (Alonzo, 2013).
aureus, including a leukotoxin
comparable to the Panton-Valentine leukocidase as sociated with community-acquired S.
Maraviroc completely blocked the toxic effects of this leukotoxin
at doses similar to those used to inhibit HIV infection," Dr.
Larger case series will be needed to best determine if 2C-E is indeed a leukotoxin
and to further describe its potential effects on the brain and other organ systems.
As one example, consider that Aggregatibacter (formally Actinobacillus) actinomycetemcomitans produces a leukotoxin
that alters the cell membranes of neutrophils and monocytes and thereby alters chemotactic and phagocytic responses.
Outer membrane-like vesicles secreted by Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans are enriched in leukotoxin
, 9,10-epoxy-12-octadecenoate causes edematous lung injury via activation of vascular nitric oxide synthase.
Some strains of P multocida and P haemolytica produce a cytotoxin and leukotoxin
, respectively, to impair the host immune response.
8] The pathogenesis of A actinomycetemcomitans is not fully understood, but it has been demonstrated that this organism has several putative virulence factors including leukotoxin
, collagenase, and chemotaxis inhibiting factor.
Detection of lktA, a gene encoding the leukotoxin
expressed by B.
The current focus of Actinobac activities involves the development of pharmaceutical technologies based upon the natural biologic agent leukotoxin
(Leukothera(TM)), which targets Leukocyte Function Antigen-1 (LFA-1) on diseased white blood cells.