Abnormalities in the central nervous system (periventricular leukoencephalomalacia
, most significant on the left side, and the presence of hypomyelination around the bilateral trigone (S).
These toxins have been linked to human oesophageal cancer, equine leukoencephalomalacia
, and toxic feed syndrome in poultry, and pulmonary edema in pigs.
in horse induced by Fumonisin [B.
1] intoxication are specific to each animal species, such as leukoencephalomalacia
in horses (SMITH et al.
Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by several fusarium mould species that are implicated in equine leukoencephalomalacia
in horses, swine pulmonary edema, and human esophageal cancer.
It is a major mycotoxin affecting horses, often causing equine leukoencephalomalacia
, a disease which results in softening of white tissue in the brain (Richard, 2007).
Sub acute massive necrotizing myocarditis by canine parvo virus type 2 infection with diffuse leukoencephalomalacia
in a puppy.
Just before the NTD outbreak, in the fall of 1989, an outbreak of equine leukoencephalomalacia
(ELEM)--liquefaction of the white matter of the brain in horses--occurred nationwide.
Consumption by horses of grain contaminated with Fusarium can lead to leukoencephalomalacia
, resulting in central nervous system damage and death.
1992) and neural tube birth defects (Hendricks, 1999) in humans, and equine leukoencephalomalacia
(Ross et al.
Several neurologic conditions were considered in the differential diagnosis, including other viral encephalomyelitides (rabies, Aujesky disease, Borna disease, EHV-1 myeloencephalopathy, WEEV, and WNV encephalomyelitis), bacterial meningitis, listeriosis, leukoencephalomalacia
, lead poisoning, equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, nigropallidal encephalomalacia, botulism, and verminous encephalitis.
Production of Fumonisin by Fusarium Moniliforme and Fusarium Proliferatum isolates associated with equine leukoencephalomalacia
and a pulmonary syndrome in swine.