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acute paroxysmal abdominal pain. It is particularly common during the first three months of life; the infant has paroxysmal, unexplained crying and may pull up arms and legs, turn red-faced, and expel gas from the anus or belch it up from the stomach. The exact cause of infantile colic is not known but several factors may contribute to it, including excessive swallowing of air, too rapid feeding or overfeeding, parental anxiety, allergy to milk, or other feeding problems. It generally occurs at the same time of day, usually at the busiest period. The parents need sympathetic support and assurance that the condition is not serious and most infants gain weight and are healthy in spite of the colic.
biliary colic colic due to passage of gallstones along the bile duct.
gastric colic gastrodynia.
lead colic colic due to lead poisoning.
menstrual colic dysmenorrhea.
renal colic intermittent, acute pain beginning in the kidney region and radiating forward and down to the abdomen, genitalia, and legs; the usual cause is calculi in a kidney or ureter. Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diaphoresis, and a desire to urinate frequently.
severe colicky abdominal pain, with constipation, symptomatic of lead poisoning.
See painter's colic.
1. pertaining to the colon.
2. a syndrome caused by severe paroxysmal pain due to disease of an abdominal organ. Usually due to alimentary tract disease, and rarely to infection or calculus in the urinary tract involving the renal pelvis, ureter, bladder or urethra.
is characterized mainly by recurrent bouts of downwards arching of the back, restless walking, looking at the flank, lying down, rolling, and getting up again. Colic is evident for a few hours only and is followed by spontaneous recovery in most cases. These cases are probably caused by intestinal spasm.
The next most common cause is intestinal obstruction by phytobezoar, volvulus, strangulation (2), or intussusception. In these the colic disappears but no feces are passed for some days. Rectal examination reveals scant, pasty gray or blood-stained feces, and possibly the presence of distended loops of intestine. Enterotomy or enterectomy is essential for survival. Rare cases also occur due to renal infarction or to ureteric obstruction.
colon impaction colic
impaction of the colon on a diet high in tough fiber is common in horses and pigs. There is mild abdominal pain and hard fecal masses are passed. See also meconium ileus, impaction colic (below).
most cases are due to intestinal disease. Characteristic signs are bouts of pain marked by pawing, looking at the flank, lying down and getting up restlessly, rolling; the gut sounds are either absent or excessive. Mild cases recover spontaneously or after medical treatment for gut spasm or impaction with dry feed. Life-threatened cases have shock, circulatory collapse and usually positive findings on abdominal paracentesis. Surgery is often obligatory. Acute colic is also an important part of the syndrome in acute enteritis and colitis in which diarrhea is a paramount sign. Peritonitis is usually manifested as subacute colic.
of horses is due to gas accumulation in the large intestine when grazing on lush pasture. There is severe pain, obvious distention of the abdomen, and the rectum is obstructed by distended loops of bowel. Sporadic cases occur as a result of partial obstruction of the intestine by fibrous adhesions. Trocarization through the flank or rectum is often necessary. Called also tympanitic colic. Previously called intestinal meteorismus.
gastric dilatation colic
of horses due to gastric dilatation is a severe acute disease due to gorging on hay or grain, especially immediately after racing, or due to lipoma causing strangulation at the pylorus. Regurgitation through the nostrils or the discharge of large quantities of fluid gastric contents through a nasal tube is a frequent sign. Death is common as a result of gastric rupture.
in horses is due to dry or indigestible feed, or bad teeth, or in foals by the retention of meconium. Subacute pain bouts occur at long intervals and over several days; death in untreated cases is due to exhaustion. Effective treatment is large oral doses of mineral oil (paraffin) administered by nasal tube. See also colon impaction colic (above).
intestinal obstruction colic
in horses is caused by intestinal obstruction consisting mostly of acute life-threatening cases due to intussusception, strangulation or volvulus, usually affecting the small intestine, although sometimes it is the cecum or colon. Typical signs are shock, absence of gut sounds, very severe pain, short course, positive findings of blood-stained fluid on paracentesis, distended loops of gut on rectal examination and death due to shock and dehydration unless the blockage is relieved by surgery.
Less severe cases are caused by impaction of the ileocecal valve by undigested fine fiber or grain, by sand accumulation, obstruction by phytobezoars, enteroliths or linear foreign bodies, usually in the small colon. See also under enterolith, phytobezoar, linear foreign body, volvulus, intussusception, strangulation.
colic due to lead poisoning.
equine colic that recurs at intervals of weeks or months. Due usually to repeated dietary indiscretions or to a persisting defect, e.g. bad teeth, verminous aneurysm.
intermittent and acute pain usually resulting from the presence of one or more calculi in the kidney or ureter.
is caused by the ingestion of soil or sand and can be an acute syndrome due to ileocecal valve impaction or chronic mild pain with diarrhea for a period of months.
this form of colic in horses is often due to excitement. Bouts of sharp pain are accompanied by loud, frequent gut sounds, and spontaneous recovery is usual within an hour. Occasional cases develop volvulus during bouts of rolling.
is caused by infarction of a section of gut wall or by stimulation by migrating strongyle larvae and may appear as intermittent spasmodic colic or subacute colic for a number of days followed by development of peritonitis. See also strongylosis.
see flatulent colic.