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a polyp projecting from the surface of one of the vocal cords.
Etymology: Gk, larynx + poly, many, pous, foot
a polyp on the vocal cords that causes hoarseness, resulting from vocal abuse or smoking.
A polyp attached to the vocal cords and extending to the air passageway.
See also: polyp
pertaining to the larynx.
laryngeal adductory reflex, adduction test
slapping of the saddle region of a horse just behind the withers causes a flickering, adductory movement of the contralateral arytenoid cartilage in normal horses. The movement of the cartilage can be viewed endoscopically. The reflex is abolished by damage to the adductory component of the recurrent laryngeal nerve, by lesions in the spinal cord in the anterior thoracic region and by excitement. Called also slap test.
inflammation of the large air sacs found attached to the larynx in great apes.
necrosis and ulceration of laryngeal mucosa caudal to the vocal cords; seen in calves and especially in Texel and Southdown sheep.
can cause laryngeal obstruction in horses.
a cause of upper airway obstruction, particularly in brachycephalic dogs.
laryngeal congenital anomalies
epiglottal hypoplasia (horse, pig) is a rare anomaly.
laryngeal contact ulcers
are ulcerative lesions which develop at the site of minor abrasions caused by frequent contact and rubbing of the epiglottis and arytenoid cartilages.
a part of acute inflammation of the laryngeal mucosa due to infection, allergy or inhalation of irritant materials. It causes obstruction to air flow, stertor, dyspnea and potentially asphyxia.
everted laryngeal saccules
the laryngeal saccules protrude into the lumen of the larynx, become edematous and cause upper airway obstruction with increased inspiratory effort.
a vibration palpable at the throat with partial obstruction of the larynx.
unilateral paralysis, called also roaring, is a common condition in horses, causing a reduction in exercise tolerance and a loud stertor at exercise. Bilateral paralysis causes a more severe but similar syndrome.
a conspicuous mound in the throat of birds; carries the entrance to the larynx.
the principal lesion in calf diphtheria.
occurs in outbreaks in feedlot steers at the site of contact ulcers on the larynx. The common bacteria in the lesions is Fusobacterium necrophorum.
includes chondroma, papilloma.
dysfuction, most commonly unilateral hemiplegia, of the recurrent layngeal nerve; see roaring.
may be acute or chronic, with signs varying to match. Stertor, inspiratory dyspnea and local signs, such as pain, swelling and the presence of foreign bodies, constitute the clinical syndrome.
occurs in feedlot steers at the site of contact ulcers on the larynx.
can result from lesions of the vagus or recurrent laryngeal nerves, and may be acquired or congenital. It is seen in association with hypothyroidism in dogs. An inherited laryngeal paralysis occurs in the Bouvier des Flandres breed of dogs, causing varying degrees of noisy respirations and upper airway obstruction from several months of age. In immature Dalmatian dogs it is seen as part of a more widespread polyneuropathy with megaesophagus, neurologic deficits. See also laryngeal hemiplegia (above).
recorded in horses in association with Besnoitia spp. infection.
laryngeal pyriform recesses
permit the grazing ruminant to breathe, and to sniff the air, while eating and ruminating.
the lining of the laryngeal ventricle.
the normal sounds of air going in and out past the larynx, as heard with a stethoscope. When there is stenosis the sounds are loud and harsh, also called stertor; with catarrhal inflammation they are gurgling.
a reflex constriction of the larynx because of contact with foreign material being inhaled or during administration of a gaseous anesthetic, especially in cats. May cause asphyxiation.
laryngeal sphincteric girdle
the muscles that constrict the laryngeal opening, and the cricoarytenoid, transverse arytenoid and thyroarytenoid muscles.
may follow laryngeal surgery, inury (particularly prolonged intubation), or infection; granulation tissue and cartilage degeneration and collapse can cause a progressive reduction in the airway.
loud breath sounds caused by a narrowing of the laryngeal lumen.
common subclinical lesion in feedlot cattle; lesions are at points of apposition of vocal processes and medial angles of arytenoid processes.
a bilateral outpocketing of the laryngeal mucosa in the dog, pig and horse. In the dog and the horse they are between the vocal and vestibular folds in the lateral walls of the laryngeal vestibule. In the pig they are in the lateral wall of the glottis.
removal of the mucosa lining the relevant laryngeal ventricle as a treatment of laryngeal hemiplegia in horses.
the short space from the entrance to the larynx to the rima glottidis.