18), statistically significant gender differences were found for the thickness of the labrale superius, labrale inferius, Pog and menton measurements.
However, statistically significant differences were found at the labrale superius, inferius, and Pog values for women, whereas the differences among the vertical groups were not significant for the men.
10 6 upper lip margin undefined in referenced text * 12 - ls labrale superius
undefined in referenced text * ls labrale superius
undefined in referenced text * sd supradentale / apex of the alveolus in alveolare / the midline between the prosthion maxillary central incisors 12 upper lip undefined in referenced text * lr10 midupper-lip maximum labial margin curvature of the most anteriorly placed upper central incisor 11 supra canine upper lip, lined up superiorly/inferiorly with lateral edge of nostril 6.
The line drawn from PCm to labrale superius (ls) was termed the PCmls line.
The proposed method of locating the posterior columella point onto which a tangent was drawn to the lower border of the nose as well as the line from this point to labrale superius proved to be a reliable technique for constructing the nasolabial angle.
they are constructed points, so it was not necessary to draw anatomical structures, which are usually operator-dependent, thus allowing bias control during the study; these points were: labrale superius (Ls), labrale inferius (Li), subnasale (Sn), glabella (G'), columella (Cm), menton (Me), pogonion (Pg'), stomion superius (Stms), stomion inferius (Stmi), and lower vermilion (Vmi).
Regarding the Y axis, the highest averages were observed in labrale superius (0,687 mm) and menton (0.
In most points, the level of interobserver error dispersion was lower in digital radiography as indicated by the standard deviation data, except in the X axis of glabella and the Y axis of labrale superius, subnasale, columella, stomion superius, and stomion inferius (table 1).
A statistically significant difference was found within the standard deviation (SD) of the X axis in labrale superius (p = 0.
Another finding of the present study indicates that in digital radiography labrale superius, labrale inferius, and lower vermilion presented interobserver error values greater than 1 mm, but with no significant differences compared to conventional imaging, suggesting that the lower vermilion was more difficult to locate because two-dimensional radiographic imaging does not clearly show where the lower lip ends.