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difficult, usually deep, breathing in patients with cardiac or pulmonary disease or disease affecting nervous system control of ventilation.
Respiration that involves active participation of accessory inspiratory and expiratory muscles; dyspnea.
See also: respiration
la·bor·ed res·pi·ra·tion(lābŏrd respir-āshŭn)
Difficult, usually deep, breathing in patients with cardiac or pulmonary disease.
1. the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and the body cells, including inspiration and expiration, diffusion of oxygen from the pulmonary alveoli to the blood and of carbon dioxide from the blood to the alveoli, and the transport of oxygen to and carbon dioxide from the body cells.
2. cellular respiration, the metabolic processes by which living cells break down carbohydrates, amino acids and fats to produce energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate).
inspiration and expiration accomplished mainly by the abdominal muscles and diaphragm. Occurs in acute pleurisy because of pain in the chest and fixation of the thorax, and tick paralysis due to paralysis of the intercostal muscles.
oxidative transformation of certain substrates into secretory products, the released energy being used in the process of assimilation.
respiration in which energy is released by chemical reactions in which free oxygen takes no part.
that maintained by force applied to the body. Called also artificially assisted respiration.
artificially assisted respiration
see artificial respiration (above).
rapid, deep respirations with abrupt pauses in breathing. See also biot's respirations.
the processes in the living cell by which organic substances are oxidized and chemical energy is released.
breathing characterized by rhythmic waxing and waning of respiration depth, with regularly recurring apneic periods. See also cheyne-stokes respiration.
breathing with jerky inspiration.
during general anesthesia using an endotracheal tube with an inflated cuff, the animal's respiration can be controlled completely by compression alternating with relaxation on the rebreathing bag of the breathing circuit. See also intermittent positive-pressure ventilation.
the respiratory movements are mostly carried out by the chest wall.
that performed mainly by the diaphragm.
induction of respiration by electric stimulation of the phrenic nerve.
the exchange of gases between the lungs and the blood.
the exchange of gases between the body cells and the blood.
machines that monitor respiratory movement and efficiency are most desirable during anesthesia. They include rate monitors, apnea alarms, tidal and minute volume monitoring respirometers, infrared gas analyzers to measure carbon dioxide content of end-tidal air,
that in which a lung, or a portion of a lung, is deflated during inspiration and inflated during expiration. See also paradoxical respiration.