kala azar


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vis·cer·al leish·man·i·a·sis

1. a chronic disease, occurring in India, China, Pakistan, the Mediterranean littoral, the Middle East, South and Central America, Asia, and Africa caused by Leishmania donovani and transmitted by the bite of an appropriate species of sandfly of the genus Phlebotomus or Lutzomyia; the organisms grow and multiply in macrophages, eventually causing them to burst and liberate amastigote parasites, which then invade other macrophages; proliferation of macrophages in the bone marrow crowds out erythroid and myeloid elements, resulting in leukopenia, anemia, splenomegaly, and hepatomegaly, that are characteristic, along with enlargement of lymph nodes; fever, fatigue, malaise, and secondary infections also occur; different strains of L. donovani occur; L. infantum in Eurasia, L. chagasi in Latin America.
2. visceral leishmaniasis caused by L. tropica, cultured from bone marrow aspirates of some military patients following the Gulf War.

vis·cer·al leish·ma·ni·a·sis

(vis'ĕr-ăl lēsh'mă-nī'ă-sis)
A chronic tropical disease caused by Leishmania donovani (less commonly, other species) and transmitted by the bite of a sandfly of the genus Phlebotomus or Lutzomyia; the organisms grow and multiply in macrophages, which eventually burst and liberate amastigote parasites, which then invade other macrophages; proliferation of macrophages in the bone marrow causes crowding out of erythroid and myeloid elements, which results in leukopenia, as well as anemia, splenomegaly, and hepatomegaly, which are characteristic, along with enlargement of lymph nodes; fever, fatigue, malaise, and secondary infections also occur.
Synonym(s): kala azar.

kala azar

One of the forms of LEISHMANIASIS, caused by Leishmania organisms and spread by the bite of sandflies. Kala azar occurs mainly in the Mediterranean area and in India, but is spreading westward into Europe. There is fever, anaemia, lymph node swelling, enlargement of the spleen and liver, damage to the bone marrow, malnutrition and loss of immune capacity (immunosuppression). The condition can be diagnosed by the ELISA test and is treated with drugs containing antimony. Also known as visceral leishmaniasis.
References in periodicals archive ?
After 70 years of little improvement or change in the treatment of kala azar in Africa, LEAP and its partners have developed a new treatment: Sodium Stibogluconate and Paromomycin (SSG and PM) combination treatment.
95 Percentage mortality rate if kala azar is left untreated.
MSF says it has seen a sharp uptick in kala azar cases since August, which is normally the disease's low season.
Without treatment, those infected with kala azar can die within weeks if their immune system is already weakened," Kidinda added.
Patients of Kala Azar in developing countries have been neglected for far too long.
These cases appeared to represent a mild form of visceral disease and did not progress to the more severe form of kala azar.
soldiers with gunshot, blast and shrapnel wounds, while 600 or so "cold" cases - civilians with malaria, sleeping sickness, pneumonia, TB, AIDS, jaundice and kala azar, all complicated by chronic dysentery and the absence of medicines and food - lay on the floor.
Kala Azar 2 Voted Best Documentary of the Year by BBC World Viewers
Tenders are invited for Procurement Of Rapid Diagnostic Test Kits For Kala Azar
MSF is present in eight of South Sudan's ten states and responds to many emergencies, including large-scale displacement, refugee influxes, alarming nutrition situations and peaks of disease, such as malaria and kala azar, in addition to providing basic and specialist healthcare services.
A further highlight of the ceremony was the testimonial to the work of MSF by Francis Gatlauk, one of the first patients ever treated by MSF in South Sudan for the deadly neglected disease kala azar (visceral leishmaniasis).