kala azar


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vis·cer·al leish·man·i·a·sis

1. a chronic disease, occurring in India, China, Pakistan, the Mediterranean littoral, the Middle East, South and Central America, Asia, and Africa caused by Leishmania donovani and transmitted by the bite of an appropriate species of sandfly of the genus Phlebotomus or Lutzomyia; the organisms grow and multiply in macrophages, eventually causing them to burst and liberate amastigote parasites, which then invade other macrophages; proliferation of macrophages in the bone marrow crowds out erythroid and myeloid elements, resulting in leukopenia, anemia, splenomegaly, and hepatomegaly, that are characteristic, along with enlargement of lymph nodes; fever, fatigue, malaise, and secondary infections also occur; different strains of L. donovani occur; L. infantum in Eurasia, L. chagasi in Latin America.
2. visceral leishmaniasis caused by L. tropica, cultured from bone marrow aspirates of some military patients following the Gulf War.

vis·cer·al leish·ma·ni·a·sis

(vis'ĕr-ăl lēsh'mă-nī'ă-sis)
A chronic tropical disease caused by Leishmania donovani (less commonly, other species) and transmitted by the bite of a sandfly of the genus Phlebotomus or Lutzomyia; the organisms grow and multiply in macrophages, which eventually burst and liberate amastigote parasites, which then invade other macrophages; proliferation of macrophages in the bone marrow causes crowding out of erythroid and myeloid elements, which results in leukopenia, as well as anemia, splenomegaly, and hepatomegaly, which are characteristic, along with enlargement of lymph nodes; fever, fatigue, malaise, and secondary infections also occur.
Synonym(s): kala azar.

kala azar

One of the forms of LEISHMANIASIS, caused by Leishmania organisms and spread by the bite of sandflies. Kala azar occurs mainly in the Mediterranean area and in India, but is spreading westward into Europe. There is fever, anaemia, lymph node swelling, enlargement of the spleen and liver, damage to the bone marrow, malnutrition and loss of immune capacity (immunosuppression). The condition can be diagnosed by the ELISA test and is treated with drugs containing antimony. Also known as visceral leishmaniasis.
References in periodicals archive ?
Kala Azar -- a Hindi word meaning "Black Death" -- erupted during Sudan's two-decade civil war that ended in 2005, killing hundreds of thousands of people in Southern Sudan.
The group says it has seen a sharp uptick in kala azar cases since August, which is normally the disease's low season.
Without treatment, those infected with kala azar can die within weeks if their immune system is already weakened," Kidinda added.
Kala Azar remains neglected by research and development initiatives.
Kala Azar 2, the BBC World's documentary featuring OneWorld Health, has been voted best documentary of the year by BBC World viewers.
Kala azar is another name given to visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a parasitic disease endemic in around 70 countries worldwide.
JUBA: Fighting and heavy rains in south Sudan have caused a spike in victims from the deadly kala azar tropical disease, with at least 31 deaths in the last two months, a health ministry official said on Monday.
However, when the drug was used for ali unselected patients of kala azar, as we did in this study similar situation might arise in future.
According to the World Health Organization, 14 million people die each year from communicable diseases such as malaria, TB, sleeping sickness and kala azar.