juvenile diabetes mellitus

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Related to juvenile diabetes mellitus: juvenile hypoglycemia, juvenile hypothyroidism

juvenile diabetes mellitus

outdated term for type 1 diabetes mellitus

diabetes mellitus

a broadly applied term used to denote a complex group of syndromes that have in common a disturbance in the oxidation and utilization of glucose, which is secondary to a malfunction of the beta cells of the pancreas, whose function is the production and release of insulin. Because insulin is involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats, diabetes is not limited to a disturbance of glucose homeostasis alone.
Diabetes mellitus has been recorded in all species but is most commonly seen in middle-aged to older, obese, female dogs. A familial predisposition has been suggested. It is possible to identify two types of diabetes, corresponding to the disease in humans, depending on the response to an intravenous glucose tolerance test. Type I is insulin-dependent and comparable to the juvenile onset form of the disease in children in which there is an absolute deficiency of insulin—there is a very low initial blood insulin level and a low response to the injected glucose. This form is seen in a number of dog breeds, particularly the Keeshond, Doberman pinscher, German shepherd dog, Poodle, Golden retriever and Labrador retriever.
Type II is non-insulin-dependent, similar to the adult onset diabetes in humans due to pancreatic damage—there is a high or normal initial blood insulin level and no increase in insulin levels as a result of the glucose load. It is the form seen most often in cats.

brittle diabetes mellitus
diabetes mellitus that is difficult to control, characterized by unexplained oscillation between hypoglycemia and diabetic ketoacidosis.
gestational diabetes mellitus
diabetes mellitus in which onset or recognition of impaired glucose tolerance occurs during pregnancy.
hyperosmolar diabetes mellitus
a syndrome of marked hyperglycemia and hyperosmolarity with central nervous signs, resembling diabetic coma.
insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM)
due to deficient secretion of insulin by the beta cells of the pancreas. See diabetes mellitus type I (above).
juvenile diabetes mellitus
develops in the young; see diabetes mellitus type I (above).
non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM)
the secretion of insulin is unimpaired but the response of tissue receptors is diminished. See diabetes mellitus type II (above).
secondary diabetes mellitus
hyperglycemia may occur in association with pancreatitis, hyperadrenocorticism, acromegaly, and treatment with glucocorticoids or progesterone.
steroid diabetes mellitus
altered carbohydrate tolerance is induced by glucocorticoids and progestogens. Hyperglycemia and diabetes mellitus can be associated with the administration of such drugs or hyperadrenocorticism.
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