Citrate blood samples were washed three times with an isoosmotic
NaCl solution and treated as previously reported , using PID (50 [micro]M) and tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHT), 100 [micro]M.
It was shown more than five decades ago in studies of how the corticomedullary osmotic gradient is generated, that luminal fluid near the bend of thin limbs of Henle's loop of hamster, kangaroo rat, and sand rat is nearly isoosmotic
with fluid of the inner medullary interstitium, collecting ducts, and blood vessels at the same level.
One strategy to diminish the viscosity effect of the isoosmotic
dimers is by enhancing tubular flow with a concomitant osmotic diuresis, as occurred naturally with the LOCM [36, 61].
After 6 h, the perivitelline fluid of all embryos was nearly isoosmotic
with the bathing medium (Fig.
The amount of Percoll added to reach an isoosmotic
solution was determined according to the manufacturer's instructions.
In the initial study , we compared two different homogenization media, one isoosmotic