When ionizing, or hard, radiation , especially gamma rays and X rays, travels through either biological or nonbiological materials it triggers the release of one or more electrons from a stable, neutral atom or molecule, producing thereby an ionized atom
Caption: The EUNIS rocket split ultraviolet light from a region (white boxes and line) of the sun into its component wavelengths (left, right), which revealed emissions from highly ionized atoms
in 10-million-degree-Celsius plasma.
The presence of FeX-FeXIV throughout the solar atmosphere strengthens the concept that interactions between atoms and metallic hydrogen in the corona act to maintain neutrality on the Sun by producing highly ionized atoms
throughout this region.
Other areas such as spectroscopy of highly ionized atoms
, laboratory astrophysics, fundamental physics, material science, and biology and chemistry will be considered on a secondary basis.
The resultant ionized atoms
are left in excited states.
cause radio waves to bounce back to Earth's surface.
The released heat was declared to be due to fusion of deuterium nuclei ionized atoms
dissolved in palladium.
A meteor train, on the other hand, is a trail of glowing, ionized atoms
that remains in the meteor's path after the meteor has passed.
Neutral and ionized atoms
from the plasma then coat the substrate.
These ionized atoms
absorb the radiation, and the kick imparted by the process blows off gas, creating a continuous, outward flow of matter.
The new trajectory carries the spacecraft through neutral and ionized atoms
, ejected by volcanoes on Io, that occupy a broad torus along the moon's orbit.
Gamma-ray bursts are the ideal tools to study the transition from a dark universe filled with neutral hydrogen atoms to a shining cosmos containing an abundance of ionized atoms
, says Loeb.