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1. the formation of an infarct.
2. an infarct.
see myocardial infarction (below) and also myocardial infarction.
an ischemic condition of the brain, causing a persistent focal neurological deficit in the area affected.
an aseptic fever caused by liberation of pyrogens from damaged tissue.
a common occurrence in horses due to occlusion of arteries by larvae of Strongylus vulgaris. Sections of intestine, sometimes very large ones, become devitalized leading to peritonitis and death.
May also result from torsion or strangulation. See also thromboembolic colic.
gross necrosis of the myocardium, due to interruption of the blood supply to the area. See also myocardial infarction.
localized necrosis of lung tissue, due to obstruction of the arterial blood supply.
is usually conical, anemic and multiple and may heal leaving a narrow scar. It is usually clinically inapparent unless the obstructing material is infected. This leads to the development of renal abscess or embolic nephritis, also usually without clinical signs unless the abscesses are large or numerous.
spinal cord infarction
caused sometimes by fibrocartilaginous emboli of prolapsed disk material, causing sudden loss of function of large sections of the spinal cord, leading to flaccid paralysis of the hindlimbs or of all four, depending on the site of the infarct.
usually hemorrhagic; may be difficult to differentiate from subcapsular hematoma.
a thrombus in a vein may cause infarction, e.g. in the thigh muscles of downer cow, recumbent for long periods, or in the gastric mucosa of pigs, where it is a common finding in acute septicemia.
pertaining to the intestine.
sudden change in normal intestinal structure or disposition, e.g. intestinal volvulus.
see porcine intestinal adenomatosis.
relics of inflammatory incidents binding loops of intestine together or to peritoneum; have the effect of obstruction or luminal constriction.
see colonic aganglionosis.
intestinal arterial thromboembolism
see verminous mesenteric arteritis.
occurs reflexly as a result of peritonitis, of severe inflammation or distention in other parts of the alimentary tract and abdominal viscera, or directly as a result of severe inflammation, as distinct from the early excitation or movement that occurs with mild or early inflammation. See also paralytic ileus.
a rare disease of the horse manifested by an acute, highly fatal diarrhea associated with the presence in the gut of large numbers of Clostridium perfringens type A.
by a tissue mass, e.g. tumor, organ enlargement, causing partial or complete obstruction.
by adhesion, local blood clot causing partial or complete obstruction.
simple, branched, tubular invaginations of mucosa at the base of the villi.
the causes of the dilatation are fluid, feces or flatus (gas). All cause pain of varying degree, and initially an increase in motility, followed by atony. In distention of long duration, e.g. with feces, the distended bowels are easily palpable and are usually the cause of some abdominal distention. In acute dilatation the distention and palpability of the loops of intestine are less obvious and later in their appearance than other signs.
causing partial or complete obstruction, e.g. displacement of the colon in horses.
may cause intestinal compression and obstruction, e.g. Meckel's diverticulum.
intestinal fibrinous casts
gelatinous, sausage-shaped masses, like casts of the intestinal lumen, resulting from severe inflammation and protein loss from the bowel wall.
fluids in the lumen of the intestine; the balance between intake and absorption of these fluids determines the form of the feces; disruption can cause diarrhea or constipation.
intestinal foreign body
has most importance as a cause of intestinal obstruction. It may also cause laceration and intestinal hemorrhage or penetration of the intestinal wall and the development of peritonitis.
resulting from chronic local inflammation; cause constriction of the intestinal lumen.
into the small intestine causes the appearance of red-black feces (melena); from the large intestine the appearance is typical of whole blood, which may be mixed homogeneously with feces or be scattered through them as clots.
intestinal hemorrhage syndrome
proliferative hemorrhagic enteropathy.
causes abdominal pain, increased gut sounds, diarrhea and decreased opportunity for the absorption of nutrients. It occurs as a result of irritation to the intestinal lining, as in enteritis, to stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system by the use of parasympathomimetic drugs, or to changes in the composition of the gut contents such as occurs when there is a malabsorption problem.
occurs as a result of distention and as a major part of the response to enterotoxic Escherichia coli toxin. The effect is to increase the fluidity of the gut contents; diarrhea results.
intestinal idiopathic muscular hypertrophy
ileal muscular hypertrophy.
intestinal ileocecal valve impaction
see intestinal obstruction colic.
see impaction colic.
passage of a loop of intestine through a small orifice, e.g. inguinal canal, with resulting swelling, obstruction and occlusion of blood supply.
intestinal intramural hematoma
causes a swelling in the bowel wall and partial obstruction of the lumen.
intestinal linear foreign body
see linear foreign body.
brown discoloration of the intestinal muscularis, especially the terminal small intestine.
any hindrance to the passage of the intestinal contents. Causes may be acute, such as those caused by foreign body, phytobezoar, intussusception, volvulus and strangulation. There is sudden onset of abdominal pain, cessation of feces evacuation, vomiting in dogs and cats, gastric distention in horses, rumen distention in ruminants, loops of intestine distended with fluid and gas palpable per rectum or visible radiographically, shock and dehydration. Obstruction may also be chronic and manifested by intermittent vomiting and abdominal pain, chronic intestinal distention, loud intestinal sounds, and palpable distended loops of intestine. See also intestinal obstruction colic.
infestation of the intestinal lumen and wall by nematodes, cestodes and immature trematodes.
see polyp; may cause intermittent bowel obstruction or erratic passage of feces.
porcine intestinal hemorrhagic syndrome
see proliferative hemorrhagic enteropathy.
openings to the closed foregut and hindgut of the embryo.
the patient presents a clinical picture of intestinal obstruction with no surgically correctable lesion, e.g. paralytic ileus.
is part of the reaction to increased gut motility resulting in gastric dilatation and the vomiting of intestinal contents, even feces.
can occur as a result of extreme distention. More commonly it follows compromise to a section of gut, e.g. strangulation, in which a necrotic section of gut wall collapses. The effects of perforation of the gut wall through a deep ulcer are similar but not so sudden. The result of a rupture is sudden death due to shock and endotoxemia. With a slower leak the result is an initial stage of acute peritonitis accompanied by fever and abdominal pain.
mild to obvious bowel dilation with mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate in the smooth muscle fibers plus interstitial fibrosis and atrophy of smooth muscle cells.
intestinal secretory-absorptive imbalance
includes excessive absorptive function, e.g. thrifty bowel syndrome, or over-secretion, the classical malabsorption syndrome, e.g. in enteric colibacillosis.
intestinal segmental ischemic necrosis of mares
occurs spontaneously in the small colon of pregnant or postpartum mares; intestinal rupture and death follow quickly.
intestinal smooth muscle intrinsic disease
see intestinal sclerosis (above).
constriction of the bowel lumen, as a result of incomplete aplasia, cicatricial contraction after injury or infection, leads to a syndrome of chronic or intermittent subacute abdominal pain.
occurs in an incarcerated hernia, umbilical, inguinal, mesenteric tear, uterine ligament, or a volvulus. There may be a double problem of acute intestinal obstruction plus an intestinal infarction characterized by profound shock and toxemia, paralytic ileus and a blood-stained paracentesis specimen. Less severe but still lethal strangulations occur as a result of tightening of a lipoma pedicle, displacement of dorsal colon in the horse over the gastrosplenic ligament.
is a common cause of acute intestinal obstruction. There is an obstruction to the movements of contents and compromise to the circulation of the twisted segment.
the small and large intestines in continuity. The long, coiled tube of the intestine is the part of the digestive system where most of the digestion of food takes place. The small intestine has three parts: the duodenum, jejunum and ileum; the large intestine, the cecum, colon and rectum.
is part of most cases of intestinal obstruction. Primary cases of intestinal tympany are rare and confined in their occurrence to the horse. See also flatulent colic.