18] These changes could lead to a reduction in blood flow to the intervillous
spaces, and alteration in the structure of the placental barrier, thereby impacting negatively on the transplacental transfer of molecules.
The syncytiotrophoblasts are preserved as the intervillous
maternal circulation is maintained (Figures 7 and 8).
9] The discrete histopathological findings were grouped into 15 main findings and four major pathological patterns for the purpose of statistical analysis:  (i) maternal vascular underperfusion (MUP) including non-marginal, recent, and organised infarction involving >10% of parenchyma, agglutination, placental syncytial (ST) knots, intervillous
fibrin deposition involving more than 20% of the intervillous
space, peri-villous fibrin deposition, villous hypoplasia, intervillous
haematoma or retroplacental haematoma; (ii) fetal vascular underperfusion (FUP) including fetal vasculopathy and/or avascular villi; (iii) inflammatory with villitis, chorioamnionitis or vasculitis lesions; (iv) others (stromal fibrosis and calcification).
Perivillous fibrin deposits in the intervillous
space are a result of thrombosis of maternal blood.
In Pregnancy-associated malaria, an extensive accumulation of parasitized erythrocytes in the placental intervillous
blood spaces mediated by adhesion to the placental chondroitin-4-sulfate (CSA) and has been linked to the severe disease outcome (Bentley & Gamain, 2008).
Type Lesion Hypoxic Chorangiosis Edema Ischemic/ Infarcts hypertensive (a) Distal villous hypoplasia Decidual vasculopathy Villous agglutination Abruption Inflammation Chronic villitis (without Intervillositis infection) Chronic chorioamnionitis Infection Acute chorioamnionitis (maternal and/or fetal) Malaria Thrombotic Maternal Increased perivillous fibrin Massive perivillous fibrin distribution Maternal floor infarct Intervillous
thrombi Subchorionic thrombus Fetal Fetal thrombotic vasculopathy Other Meconium Amniotic metaplasia ([+ or -] clear cell) Calcifications Maternal sickling Villous dysmaturity (a) Given the overlap of ischemic and hypertensive lesions, these were grouped together for analysis.
Markers of haemostasis and angiogenesis in placentae from gestational vascular complications: impairment of mechanisms involved in maintaining intervillous
blood flow," Thrombosis Research, vol.
space is narrowed, contains common loci of bleeding, blood clots, fibrinoid fields and cobs, chorionic villi that are close to each other.
sup] The known risks of general anesthesia include difficult intubation, aspiration, significant hemodynamic changes during intubation, impaired intervillous
blood supply and drug interactions between anesthetics and antihypertensive medication.
Accumulation of infected erythrocytes in placental intervillous
spaces characterizes malaria during pregnancy (3).
The most frequent lesion observed in placentas at lower hemoglobin concentration is infarct, characterized by aggregation of the villi with marked narrowing, often obliteration of the intervillous
space and coagulative necrosis of the villi11-12.
Additional features that were noted on histology in the HIV-positive group included evidence of meconium exposure (n=10), focal infarct (n=1), focal decidual vasculopathy (n=1), dysmaturity (n=3), fetal thrombotic vasculopathy (n=1), chorangiosis (n=1), intervillous
thrombus (n=2) and intervillous
haemorrhage (n=3); and in the HIV-negative group, infarcts (n=2), decidual vasculopathy (n=1) and dysmaturity (n=2).