In particular, counselor educators need to increase the awareness of students on the impact of homophobia, heterosexism, and internalized homophobia
on the lives of LGB people, and how LGB individuals might cope with minority stress.
, intimacy, and sexual behavior among gay and bisexual men.
The Lesbian Internalized Homophobia
Scale: A rational/theoretical approach.
Although the therapist might be tempted to assist the client to explore issues of shame and internalized homophobia
to create a more vital sense of self, it is crucial to remember that without sobriety, none of these difficult issues can be resolved at all.
and health issues affecting lesbians and gay men.
Herek and Glunt (1995) asserted that internalized homophobia
was negatively associated with feelings of self-efficacy for safe sex and positively associated with perceptions of interpersonal barriers to engaging in safe sex.
Ego-dystonic gay men are more vulnerable to internalized homophobia
, and their self-esteem is weaker, which can lead them to take risks.
has been reported to be associated with relationship satisfaction, extent of attraction to men and women, membership and length of social time spent with gay groups, disclosure of HIV status and identity (13-15).
What's more, LGB youth who showed more internalized homophobia
and abnormal cortisol activity also experienced increased symptoms of depression, anxiety and suicidal thoughts.
Keywords: men, gay/bisexual, body image, eating disorder, internalized homophobia
To the extent that other scales of homophobia and internalized homophobia
have similar factor structures and ideological surrounds fundamentally experienced by religious conservatives as antireligious, they may share in this need for interpretive sensitivity.
Rather, affirmative practice requires that practitioners celebrate and validate the identities of gay men and lesbians and actively work with these clients to confront their internalized homophobia
to develop positive identities as gay and lesbian individuals.