internal hemorrhoid

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an enlarged (varicose) vein in the mucous membrane inside or just outside the rectum; called also pile.

Internal hemorrhoids usually are first noticed when minor bleeding occurs with defecation. Pain occurs rarely, unless there is an associated disorder such as an anal fissure, thrombosis, or strangulation of the affected vein. External hemorrhoids produce varying degrees of pain, feelings of pressure, itching, irritation, and a palpable mass. Bleeding occurs only if the external hemorrhoid is injured or ulcerated and begins to break down.

Hemorrhoids are caused by increased pressure on the veins of the anus. Prolonged sitting, constipation, and hard, dry stools that are difficult to pass can lead to straining and sitting at stool for long periods of time, all of which add pressure on the anal veins. Failure to follow through on the urge to defecate can also lead to hemorrhoids. In women, probably the single most common cause is pregnancy.

External hemorrhoids can be treated by local applications of cold and an astringent cream, by sitz baths, and by avoidance of constipation. Internal hemorrhoids may require sclerosing or cryosurgery to obliterate the affected tissue. More advanced, chronic hemorrhoids usually must be removed surgically by ligation and excision (hemorrhoidectomy) or by barron ligation.
Types of hemorrhoids.
external hemorrhoid one distal to the pectinate line.
internal hemorrhoid one originating above the pectinate line and covered by mucous membrane.
prolapsed hemorrhoid an internal hemorrhoid that has descended below the pectinate line and protruded outside the anal sphincter.
strangulated hemorrhoid an internal hemorrhoid that has prolapsed sufficiently and for a long enough time for its blood supply to become occluded by the constricting action of the anal sphincter.

internal hemorrhoid

a fold of mucous membrane at the anorectal junction, caused by edema or dilation of the interior rectal vein.

internal hemorrhoid

Hemorrhoid located proximal to the pectinate line, covered by mucous membrane and relatively insensitive to direct noxious stimuli.
See: hemorrhoid for illus.
See also: hemorrhoid
References in periodicals archive ?
A newer technique called stapled hemorrhoidopexy can treat protruding internal hemorrhoids with less pain than hemorrhoidectomy.
Unexplained anal pain is often attributed to internal hemorrhoids or fissures, but may be due to an internal abscess.
This technique is used only for internal hemorrhoids.
The HET System, recently adopted by South Jersey Endoscopy Center, typically allows the doctor to quickly and effectively remove or shrink all symptomatic internal hemorrhoids in a single treatment session.
Internal hemorrhoids arise above this line, so they can be treated without an anaesthetic.
Nonpregnant women with internal hemorrhoids would be considered surgical candidates when conservative measures fail, when there is other associated pathology such as a fistula or abscess, or when she has severe fourth-degree hemorrhoids.
Direct Current Probe Treatment: This method is tried in patients of chronic anal fissures with associated internal hemorrhoids.
For prolapsed internal hemorrhoids, the best definitive treatment is traditional hemorrhoidectomy (SOR: A, systematic reviews).
The internal hemorrhoids typically then shrink within 4-6 weeks.
13,14,15) Associated external pile with 2nd & 3rd degree internal hemorrhoids needs hemorrhoidectomy.