insulin glargine


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insulin glargine (rDNA origin)

Lantus

Pharmacologic class: Pancreatic hormone

Therapeutic class: Hypoglycemic

Pregnancy risk category C

Action

Long-acting insulin form. Promotes glucose transport, which stimulates carbohydrate metabolism in skeletal and cardiac muscle and adipose tissue. Also promotes phosphorylation of glucose in liver, where it's converted to glycogen. Directly affects fat and protein metabolism, stimulates protein synthesis, inhibits release of free fatty acids, and indirectly decreases phosphate and potassium.

Availability

Injection: 100 units/ml in 10-ml vials and 3-ml cartridges

Indications and dosages

Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus and type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus in patients who need long-acting insulin

Adults and children ages 6 and older: Subcutaneous injection daily at same time each day, with dosage based on blood glucose level

Conversion from another insulin type in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus who need long-acting insulin

Adults and children ages 6 and older: For patients switching from once-daily NPH or ultralente human insulin, start glargine at same dosage as current insulin dosage. For patients taking twice-daily NPH or ultralente human insulin, reduce initial glargine dosage by approximately 20% of current insulin dosage during week 1; then adjust based on blood glucose level.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus in patients receiving oral hypoglycemics

Adults: Dosage highly individualized based on glucose levels and response

Contraindications

• Hypersensitivity to drug or its components
• Hypoglycemia

Precautions

Use cautiously in:
• pregnant or breastfeeding patients
• children.

Administration

Be aware that insulin is a high-alert drug.
• Give by subcutaneous route only, at same time each day.

Don't mix in solution with other drugs, including other insulins.
• Before drawing up insulin into syringe, roll vial between hands to ensure uniform dispersion; don't shake.
• Rotate injection sites to prevent lipodystrophy.

Adverse reactions

Metabolic: rebound hyperglycemia (Somogyi effect), hypoglycemia

Skin: urticaria, rash, pruritus, redness, stinging, or warmth at injection site

Other: edema, lipodystrophy, lipohypertrophy, allergic reactions including anaphylaxis

Interactions

Drug-drug.Acetazolamide, albuterol, antiretrovirals, asparaginase, calcitonin, corticosteroids, cyclophosphamide, danazol, dextrothyroxine, diazoxide, diltiazem, diuretics, dobutamine, epinephrine, estrogens, hormonal contraceptives, isoniazid, morphine, niacin, phenothiazines, phenytoin, somatropin, terbutaline, thyroid hormones: decreased hypoglycemic effect

Anabolic steroids, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, calcium, chloroquine, clofibrate, clonidine, disopyramide, fluoxetine, guanethidine, mebendazole, MAO inhibitors, octreotide, oral hypoglycemics, phenylbutazone, propoxyphene, pyridoxine, salicylates, sulfinpyrazone, sulfonamides, tetracyclines: increased hypoglycemic effect

Beta-adrenergic blockers (nonselective): masking of some hypoglycemia signs and symptoms, delayed recovery from hypoglycemia

Lithium carbonate: altered hypoglycemic effect

Pentamidine: increased hypoglycemic effect, possibly followed by hyperglycemia

Drug-diagnostic tests.Glucose, inorganic phosphate, magnesium, potassium: decreased levels

Liver and thyroid function studies: test interference

Urine vanillylmandelic acid: increased level

Drug-herbs.Basil, bee pollen, burdock, glucosamine, sage: altered glycemic control

Chromium, coenzyme Q10, dandelion, eucalyptus, fenugreek, marshmallow: increased hypoglycemic effect

Garlic, ginseng: decreased blood glucose level

Drug-behaviors.Alcohol use: increased hypoglycemic effect

Marijuana use: increased blood glucose level

Smoking: increased blood glucose level, decreased response to insulin

Patient monitoring

• Monitor blood glucose level frequently to assess drug efficacy and appropriateness of dosage.
• Watch blood glucose level closely if patient is converting from one insulin type to another or is under unusual stress (as from surgery or trauma).

Check for signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia (such as CNS changes). Keep glucose source at hand.

Monitor for signs and symptoms of hyperglycemia, such as polydipsia, polyphagia, polyuria, and diabetic ketoacidosis (blood and urine ketones, metabolic acidosis, extremely elevated glucose level, hypovolemia).
• Monitor for glycosuria.
• Closely monitor kidney and liver function test results in patients with renal or hepatic impairment.

Patient teaching

• Instruct patient how to administer insulin subcutaneously.

Teach patient how to recognize and report signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. Advise him to always carry glucose source.
• Advise patient to rotate subcutaneous injection sites and keep a record of sites used.
• Teach patient how to monitor and record blood glucose level and, if indicated, urine glucose and ketone levels.
• Inform patient that changes in diet, activity, and stress level can affect blood glucose level and insulin requirements.
• Advise patient to wear medical identification stating that he is diabetic and takes insulin.
• As appropriate, review all other significant and life-threatening adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs, tests, herbs, and behaviors mentioned above.

insulin glargine

(glär′jēn′)
n.
A long-acting insulin analog whose amino acid sequence differs from that of human insulin by the substitution of glycine for asparagine at one end of the A chain and the addition of two arginines to the B chain, used in the treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

insulin glargine

an analog of human insulin produced by recombinant DNA technology, differing from human insulin in that the asparagine at position A21 is replaced by glycine and two arginines are added to the C-terminus of the B-chain. It is administered subcutaneously for once-daily insulin replacement therapy.

rDNA insulin

A single-dose insulin created by recombinant DNA technology.

Adverse effects
Hypoglycaemia, lipodystrophy, skin reactions (e.g., local irritation, pruritus, rash).

insulin glargine

A basal human insulin analogue modified so as to produce peakless release and a duration of effective action in DIABETES of as long as 24 hours. A brand name is Lantus.
References in periodicals archive ?
Data submitted as part of the Marketing Authorization Application included analytical similarity data, metabolic assays, euglycemic clamp data in type 1 diabetes patients for demonstration of similar PD and PK response, as well as robust clinical endpoint studies in patients with Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes comparing Semglee with the reference product, insulin glargine to demonstrate similar safety, efficacy and immunogenicity up to 52 weeks.
Investigational new insulin glargine 300 U/ml has the same metabolism as insulin glargine 100 U/ ml.
As a result of Sanofi's groundwork, USP recently published a document for comment in section "General Chapters, In-Process Revision: <121> Insulin Assays" (USP, 2017), stating "a new in vitro cell-based bioidentity test for Insulin Glargine and Insulin Lispro is added as an alternative approach to in vivo bioidentity test using rabbits.
5%), despite being on insulin glargine and metformin.
The results from the Uni-E4 trial demonstrate that, when compared to insulin glargine, Uni-E4 can effectively decrease the body weight of diabetes patients through suppressing the appetite and prolonging gastrointestinal emptying time.
In addition to pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies, Phase III studies in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes have been conducted and results submitted, using currently marketed insulin glargine as the active comparator.
Data source: A meta-analysis of seven open-label, randomized, treat-to-target published phase Illa trials comparing once-daily insulin degludec with insulin glargine.
We now know more about insulin glargine than about any other glucose lowering drug with respect to future health outcomes," commented Dr.
Insulin glargine (Lantus, Sanofi-Aventis) is a long-acting recombinant human insulin that is frequently used to treat diabetic cats.
Abu Dhabi: Diabetes patients and doctors need not worry about reports on the possible link between Insulin glargine and cancer, an advisory from the Health Authority - Abu Dhabi (HAAD) said on Sunday.
Extensive data involving over 70,000 patients in clinical studies, including randomized, controlled clinical trials that represent the gold standard of evidence, and the results of post-marketing surveillance arising from 24 million patient-years of clinical experience do not indicate an association between insulin glargine and cancer.