The reliability estimates (explanation, 97%; promotion of independence, 94%; inquiry, 89%; verbal hint, 90%; instructional directive, 88%; modeling, 91%; correction, 83%; physical control, 86%; child asking for help, 85%; child's refusal of help, 90%; and child's independent performance, 95%) are adequate for each category.
Instructional Directive Mother instructs the child how to perform the appropriate response (e.
The nine maternal scaffolding strategies (ranging in order from non-directive and less controlling to directive and highly controlling) were: promotio n of independence, explanation, inquiry, verbal hint, verbal prompt, instructional directives, modeling, correction, and physical control (see Table 2).
As presented in Table 3, II mothers used more instructional directives [F (1, 38) = 11.
001], gave fewer instructional directives [F (1, 38) = 8.
As presented in Table 5, the analyses of univariate F tests across control and experimental conditions showed significant group differences, indicating that II mothers in the experimental condition altered their level of support by reducing their number of instructional directives [F (1, 36) = 20.