inhibitory synapse

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Related to inhibitory synapse: Excitatory synapse

inhibitory synapse

A synapse which passes an inhibitory signal to its post-synaptic neuron or neurons causing it or them to be less likely to have an action potential or to have reduced frequency of action potentials.


the junction between the processes of two neurons or between a neuron and an effector organ, where neural impulses are transmitted by chemical means. The impulse causes the release of a neurotransmitter (e.g. acetylcholine or norepinephrine) from the presynaptic membrane of the axon terminal. The neurotransmitter molecules diffuse across the synaptic cleft, bind with specific receptors on the postsynaptic membrane, causing depolarization or hyperpolarization of the postsynaptic cell. See also neuron.

adrenergic synapse
the neurotransmitter is norepinephrine. See also adrenergic (1).
axoaxonic synapse
axodendritic synapse
axodendrosomatic synapse
one between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites and body of another.
axosomatic synapse
cholinergic synapse
the neurotransmitter is acetylcholine. See also cholinergic.
dendrodendritic synapse
one from a dendrite of one cell to a dendrite of another.
excitatory synapse
a synapse in which the transmission of impulses is electrical not chemical. Found only in fish and invertebrates.
inhibitory synapse
hyperpolarizing electrical current is used to raise the threshold for the stimulation of a discharge of an impulse from the particular kind of nerve cell, found only in fish.
References in periodicals archive ?
eCB-LTD occurs at excitatory synapses in the dorsal striatum, nucleus accumbens, cerebral cortex, dorsal cochlear nucleus, cerebellum, and hippocampus, and at inhibitory synapses in the hippocampus, amygdala and ventral tegmental area.
2010) BDNF evokes release of endogenous cannabinoids at layer 2/3 inhibitory synapses in the neocortex.
2008) Metaplastic control of the endocannabinoid system at inhibitory synapses in hippocampus.
Symmetric chemical synapses, corresponding to the inhibitory synapses, showed a well-organized presynaptic grid at the synaptic active zone and rigidity in both pre-and postsynaptic membranes, making this area of the synaptic complex more straight and of higher electron-density; at the postsynaptic site, no appreciable postsynaptic density was observed (Fig.
This fact is an important neuroevolutionary advance, since we did not observe inhibitory synapses in planarians, neither in annelids (Palacios-Pru et al.
All these ultrastructural characteristics, such as the presence of excitatory and inhibitory synapses, a high density of electron transparent synaptic vesicles, subsynaptic cisterns and glial cell elements, are important evolutionary acquisitions demonstrating the importance of Onychophora in the study of neurophylogenesis.
A model of neuronal network learning based on variations of the efficiency of excitatory and inhibitory synapses.
The researchers found that mice subjected to exposure therapy had more perisomatic inhibitory synapses in the amygdala than mice who did not receive exposure therapy.
At inhibitory synapses on a Purkinje cell, presynaptic plasticity mechanisms have also been reported.
1993) Spatial distribution of excitatory and inhibitory synapses on a Purkinje cell in a rat cerebellar culture.
They reached this conclusion by labelling inhibitory synapses in mouse brains with fluorescent proteins and then tracking them for several weeks using a specialised microscope.
At the same time, many of the inhibitory synapses disappeared and were later replaced by new synapses.