Recognising pulmonary venous congestion without cardiac enlargement is a difficult radiological assessment but, when recognised, the diagnosis of infracardiac
TAPVD can be strongly suggested.
17 open-heart surgery in Portland to correct a condition known as infracardiac
total anomalus pulmonary venous return - in which the heart's pulmonary veins are connected to the wrong side of the heart - plans to assist Bove during the operation, Rice says.
With type III, the site being infracardiac (15%), connection occurs to the portal vein, venous duct, or inferior vena cava below the diaphragm.
A diagnosis of infracardiac type TAPVC was established, to confirm the diagnosis and to exclude the possibility of mixed type TAPVC, catheter-angiography was performed.
The site of the orifice of TAPVC in supracardiac TAPVC is best seen from a suprasternal approach, in intracardiac TAPVC in the four-chamber projection, in infracardiac TAPVC from a subcostal approach (8).
In our case, infracardiac type TAPVC diagnosis was established by echocardiographic examination.
Even more specifically, these features depend on a host of others: fetalized pattern of arterial ramification, broad thorax, retention of the five-rayed hand, retention of thick-vertebrae, long lower limbs, no infracardiac
lobe, retention of cranial flexure and central position of the foramen magnum, retention of the fetal foot form, large forebrain, protracted childhood, retention of a longer neck, deep location of the larynx, retention of the flat facial skull, retention of dimensions of first dentition, etc.
The persisting pneumatoenteric recess and the infracardiac
bursa: Possible role in the pathogenesis of right hydrothorax complicating peritoneal dialysis.