The three major types of influenza viruses
A, B and C all cause human disease.
Almost all new influenza viruses
originate in China because of that country's particular ecology and lack of standardized farm sanitary standards.
To prevent another flu pandemic and reduce the numbers of flu epidemics, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) supports research to find out how influenza viruses
work, and to develop better vaccines to prevent and treat influenza virus infections.
Although only a few different influenza viruses
circulate at any given time, people continue to become ill with the flu throughout their lives.
Researchers commented that "Rubini elderberry extract is active against human pathogenic bacteria as well as influenza viruses
In the current study, using virus histochemical analysis, the investigators looked at the pattern of attachment of two genetically engineered emerging H7 viruses (containing the hemagglutinin (HA) of either influenza virus A/Shanghai/1/13 or A/Anhui/1/13) to fixed human respiratory tract tissues and compared the findings to attachment patterns seen with human influenza viruses
with high transmissibility but low virulence (seasonal H3N2 and pandemic H1N1) and highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses with low transmissibility and high virulence (H5N1 and H7N7).
Agricultural fairs are unique because they facilitate prolonged commingling of pigs from numerous sources raised under varied management programs with millions of persons who have widely disparate histories of exposure to various influenza viruses
often circulate in waves of activity.
Avian influenza viruses
are transmitted to humans in two main ways: 1) directly from birds or from avian virus--contaminated environments to people, or 2) through an intermediate host, such as a pig.
Inviragen will leverage its success in designing avian influenza vaccines to identify vaccine candidates that protect against pandemic and seasonal influenza viruses
Analysis of the influenza viruses
collected from live poultry markets and poultry farms located in Shanghai and Anhui Province has revealed that 20 samples tested positive for the presence of H7N9 influenza viruses
, out of which 10 were isolated from chickens, 3 from pigeons, and 7 were from environmental samples, in a total of 970 samples collected by a group of scientists led by Professor Chen Hualan of the Harbin Veterinary Research Institute at the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences.
We tested only for seroreactivity to the H5 hemagglutinin and the N1 neuraminidase; therefore, further studies are needed to determine whether different avian origin influenza viruses
are present in the guinea pig population.