The most frequent serious flu complications are pulmonary, such as primary influenza pneumonia
, secondary bacterial pneumonia, or chronic pulmonary diseases.
Primary influenza pneumonia
causing lower respiratory tract infections is bad enough, but secondary bacterial pneumonia may occur within a few days of onset of symptoms and carry a high mortality, especially in the senior populations.
An old report, from 1919, describes TB diagnoses for patients who were not recovered completely from influenza pneumonia
As well as preventing flu, the flu vaccine will protect against influenza pneumonia
, and decreases the chance of getting pneumonia due to pneumococcus and other bacteria (because people are often infected with such bacteria when they have flu).
It is for this reason that a few individuals die of influenza pneumonia
in spite of specific antiviral treatment.
Patients with influenza pneumonia
should receive oseltamivir or zanamivir if the drugs are started within 48 hours of symptom onset.
1,3) The most severe complications from influenza in pregnant women are from primary influenza pneumonia
or secondary bacterial pneumonia.
Although the bacteria alone are relatively harmless, staphylococcus infection is often found in influenza pneumonia
Antiviral drugs effective against influenza should be used within 48 hours of the onset of symptoms but can be useful after that to reduce viral shedding or to address influenza pneumonia
Gram stain of the sputum in patients with primary influenza pneumonia
fails to reveal significant bacteria, and bacterial cultures yield sparse growth of normal oropharyngeal flora.
Although many co-infected patients also had pneumonia, a fact which might have explained the above-mentioned findings, the same predictive factors distinguished between influenza pneumonia
and influenza plus pneumococcal pneumonia.
The badger and binturong were generally healthy, no other pathogens were detected, and pulmonary lesions were consistent with influenza pneumonia