IRF5 promotes inflammatory macrophage polarization and TH1-TH17 responses.
Notch-RBP-J signaling regulates the transcription factor IRF8 to promote inflammatory macrophage polarization.
In a series of test tube studies, the researchers flushed out the specifics of how Notch influences the molecular cascade leading to generation of inflammatory macrophage
NP001, a regulator of macrophage activation, exerts its effect by converting these activated inflammatory macrophages
back to their normal state.
Until now, the thinking was that inflammatory macrophages
arise mainly from the recruitment of their precursors -- monocytes -- from the bloodstream," said Clint Robbins, lead author on the study and an Assistant Professor in U of T's Departments of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, and Immunology.
Its analgesic effect stems from the compound's ability to inhibit the production of cytokines and chemokines, which are small signaling molecules that attract inflammatory macrophages
to the nerve cells.
Isolation of inflammatory macrophages
from swim bladder of tilapia.
Liver macrophages constitute resident and inflammatory macrophages
both of which play an important role in liver inflammation.
These results confirm that rhPTX-2 mediated suppression of neovascularization and fibrosis in these neovascular retinal models is mediated through similar inductions in IL-10 associated regulatory macrophage activity and selective inhibition of inflammatory macrophages
and fibrocytes observed with rhPTX-2 therapy in models of pulmonary and renal fibrosis.
He added that the fat reserves of obese people have been found to contain inflammatory macrophages
whereas those of lean people contain anti-inflammatory macrophages
, replicating the observations made in their animal model.
There is a growing body of evidence that the presence of inflammatory macrophages
contributes to the pathogenesis of numerous other disorders, and positive effects of blockade of the CCR2/MCP-1 axis have been shown in animal models of rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, diabetes, atherosclerosis, neuropathic pain and inflammatory bowel disease.
CCR2 and its primary ligand, MCP-1, represent the critical signaling pathway for the recruitment of peripheral blood monocytes to sites of immune mediated inflammation, where they become inflammatory macrophages