Perhaps one of the most pervasive problems associated with the discriminatory treatment of African Americans by the criminal justice system is the undeniably catastrophic effect mass incarceration has on individuals and families, particularly women and children, caregivers, (especially grandparents); and Black communities at large.
All of these policies and practices contribute to high rates of mass incarceration that extend well beyond the ramifications of the actual crimes committed (Garland, 2001a; Garland, 2001b).
were abusive or violent, one might also predict that incarcerations of
than girls, with maternal incarcerations in early adolescence found to
Incarcerations go up, even with less criminals being arrested, because of initiatives of the 1980s and 1990s that established sentencing guidelines, mandatory minimums, truth-in-sentencing, tougher drug laws and three-strikes laws.
Institutionalized offenders follow the unwritten rules of incarceration and once released demonstrate the behavior required to maintain membership in the criminal community.
Although age-specific incarcerations in these age groups are also high among the non-Indigenous prison population, the percentage of prisoners in the 20-24 to 30-34 age groups was lower: 58% in 2001.
Although the RCIADIC identified a host of factors that may be relevant to Indigenous incarcerations and leading to deaths in custody, there is a general lack of research developed to examine specific causes for Indigenous over-representation in all phases of the CJS.
The mass incarceration
of African Americans coincides with a new
85) In New York City, arrests and incarcerations
, both for drug and non-drug crimes, have long been spatially concentrated in the poorest neighborhoods.
Prosecutor General Tala'at Abdullah ordered the incarceration
of former President Hosni Mubarak for an extended 15-day period
Washington, Sep 29 (ANI): A new study has suggested that father's incarceration
is linked with substantially elevated risks for illegal drug use in adolescence and early adulthood.