Over the years, clinicians have been attracted to a long succession of enticing methods, including Rogers' (1951) nondirective reflection, Wolpe's (1958) systematic desensitization, Frankl's (1963) paradoxical intention, Stampfl's (1970) implosive therapy
, Janov's (1970) primal scream, Peris' (1973) empty chair technique, Selvini Palazzoli's (1986) invariant prescription, de Shazer's (1988) miracle question, Shapiro's (1995) eye-movement desensitization (EMDR), and--our l atest obsessions--anything with attachment (e.
The orientations covered include operant procedures, token economies, Pavlovian conditioning, stimulus and response control and desensitization, and implosive therapy
in the treatment of combat related fears in a World War II veteran.
In the late 1960s, Joseph Wolpe introduced several imagery-related techniques in behavior-modification therapy: systematic desensitization, aversive-imagery methods, symbolic-modeling techniques and implosive therapy
Karoly and Kanfer (1982) introduced the technique of implosive therapy to describe the extinguishing of maladaptive behaviors.
In this investigation, we also attempted to (a) examine whether imagery of an unsuccessful action has the potential of extinguishing a maladaptive behavior and enhancing performance, in line with the implosive therapy applied in the psychotherapeutic domain (Karoly & Kanfer, 1982) and related findings regarding the physical skill of golf-putting (Woolfolk et al.